SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
SCICLONE PHARMACEUTICALS INC (Form: 10-K, Received: 03/11/2016 13:29:04)

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-K

 

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 201 5

 

O r

 

 

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

 

For the transition period from              to              .  

Commission file number 0-19825

 

SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware

94-3116852

(State or other jurisdiction of

Incorporation or organization)

(I.R.S. Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

950 Tower Lane, Suite 900

Foster City, California

94404

(Address of principal executive offices)

(Zip Code)

  (650) 358-3456

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

 

 

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC .

(Title of Class)

(Name of each exchange on which registered)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes     No  

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of Registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer or a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See definition of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act (Check one): 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller Reporting Company

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes     No  

The aggregate market value of the voting stock held by non-affiliates of SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc. was approximately $ 489 , 624 ,000 as of June 30, 2015 , based upon the closing price of SciClone Pharmaceuticals Inc.’s Common Stock on The NASDAQ Global Select Market on such date. Shares of Common Stock held by each executive officer and director have been excluded from the calculation because such persons may be deemed to be affiliates. This determination of affiliate status is not necessarily a conclusive determination for other purposes.

As of March  7 ,   2016 ,   49,624,211   shares of the Registrant’s Common Stock , $0.001 par value, were issued and outstanding.

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

Part III incorporates by reference from the definitive proxy statement for the Company’s 201 6 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be filed with the Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A not later than 120 days after the end of the fiscal y ear covered by this Annual Rep or t on F orm 10-K.


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAGE NO.

 

PART I.

 

 

Item 1.

 

Business

 

 

4

 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

 

16

 

Item 1B.

 

Unresolved Staff Comments

 

 

35

 

Item 2.

 

Properties

 

 

35

 

Item 3.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

 

35

 

Item 4.

 

Mine Safety Disclosures

 

 

36

 

PART II.

 

 

Item 5.

 

Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

 

37

 

Item 6.

 

Selected Financial Data

 

 

39

 

Item 7.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

 

40

 

Item 7A.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

 

 

55

 

Item 8.

 

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

 

56

 

 

 

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Fi rm  

 

 

57

 

 

 

Consolidated Balance Sheets

 

 

58

 

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Income

 

 

59

 

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income

 

 

60

 

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Stockholders’ Equity

 

 

61

 

 

 

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows

 

 

62

 

 

 

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

 

63

 

Item 9.

 

Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

 

88

 

Item 9A.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

 

88

 

Item 9B.

 

Other Information

 

 

89

 

PART III.

 

 

Item 10.

 

Directors, Executive Officers, and Corporate Governance

 

 

89

 

Item 11.

 

Executive Compensation

 

 

89

 

Item 12.

 

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

 

90

 

Item 13.

 

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

 

90

 

Item 14.

 

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

 

 

90

 

PART IV.

 

 

Item 15.

 

Exhibits, Financial Statement Schedules

 

 

90

 

Signatures  

 

 

 

 

95

 

 

 

 

As used in this Annual Report, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and “SciClone” mean SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and its subsidiaries (unless the context indicates a different meaning). SciClone, SciClone Pharmaceuticals, the SciClone Pharmaceuticals design, the SciClone logo and ZADAXIN are registered trademarks of SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in the United States and numerous other countries. All other Company names and trademarks included in this Annual Report are trademarks, registered trademarks or trade names of their respective owners.

 

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NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. These forward-looking statements are based on our current expectations, estimates and projections about our business, industry, management’s beliefs and certain assumptions made by us. Words such as "may," "will," "would," "could," "should," "might," "believes," "estimates," "projects," "potential," "expects," "plans," "anticipates," "intends," "continues," "forecast," "designed," "goal," “unaudited,” “approximately” or the negative of those words or similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, including those statements we make regarding our future financial results. These statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that are difficult to predict and actual outcomes may differ materially.

These include risks and uncertainties relating to:

·

our substantial dependence on sales of ZADAXIN in China;

·

government regulatory action affecting our Company or our drug products or our competitors' drug products in China, the US and other foreign countries, including the effect of government initiatives in China, particularly the Chinese government’s increasing regulation of the pharmaceutical industry through anti-corruption activities;

·

Chinese government regulatory actions intended to reduce pharmaceutical prices such as the reduction in the governmentally permitted maximum listed price for our products and increased oversight of the health care market and pharmaceutical industry;

·

prospects for ZADAXIN ® and our plans for its enhancement and commercialization as well as our expectations regarding other products;

·

future size of the hepatitis B virus (“HBV”) and hepatitis C virus (“HCV”) and other markets, particularly in China;

·

anticipated product sales of current or anticipated products;

·

the sufficiency of our resources to complete clinical trials and other new product development initiatives; government regulatory actions that may affect product reimbursement, product pricing or otherwise affect the scope of our sales and marketing; the timing and outcome of clinical trials;

·

t he dependence of our current and future revenue and prospects on third-party license, promotion or distribution agreements, including the need to renew such agreements, enter into similar agreements, or end arrangements that SciClone does not believe are beneficial;

·

the effects of the resolution of the SEC and DOJ matters and our ability to continue to comply with applicable regulations;

·

our ability to implement and maintain controls over our financial reporting;

·

operating an international business, particularly in China including pricing regulations, slow payment cycles and currency exchange fluctuations;

·

uncertainty in the prospects for unapproved products, including uncertainties as to pricing and competition and risks relating to the clinical trial process and related regulatory approval process and the process of initiating trials at, and enrolling patients at, clinical sites;

·

research and development and other expense levels;

·

the ability of our suppliers to continue financially viable production of our products;

·

the allocation of financial resources to certain trials and programs, and the outcome and expenses related to litigation; and

·

other factors discussed in this Report under Item 1A “Risk Factors” and Item 7 “Management Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations”.

These statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Therefore, our actual results could differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements as a result of various factors including, but not limited to, those described under the caption “Risk Factors” in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We undertake no obligation to revise or update publicly any forward-looking statements for any reason.

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PART I

Item 1.   Business  

Overview  

SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: SCLN) is a United States (“US”)-headquartered, China-focused, specialty pharmaceutical company with a substantial commercial business and a product portfolio of therapies for oncology, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disorders. We are focused on continuing to grow our revenue and profitability. Our business and corporate strategy is focused primarily on the People’s Republic of China (“China” or “PRC” ) where we have built a solid reputation and established a strong brand through many years of experience marketing our lead product, ZADAXIN   (thymalfasin). In addition, we have an established product promotion business model with large pharmaceutical partners and we are focused on establishing profitability in all of these collaborations. We believe our sales and marketing strengths position us to benefit from the long-term expansion of the pharmaceutical market in China . Th e Chinese pharmaceutical market currently ranks second   among the global pharmaceutical markets, and   had an estimated worth of $105 billion in 2014 . It is forecasted to increase significantly to $200 billion by 2020. We seek to expand our presence in China and increase revenues by growing sales and profits of our current product portfolio, launching new products from our development pipeline, adding new, profitable product services agreements and leveraging our strong cash position to in-license additional products.

We operate in two segments which are generally based on the nature and location of our customers: 1) China and 2) the Rest of the World, which includes our US and Hong Kong operations.

We have two categories of revenues: “product sales revenues” and “promotion services revenues.” Our product sales revenues result from our proprietary and in-licensed products, including our lead product, ZADAXIN; DC Bead ® ,   a product for the embolization of malignant hypervascularized tumors, for which we initiated sales and recorded product revenue beginning in the third quarter of 2015, and products from Pfizer International Trading (Shanghai) Ltd. (“Pfizer”). Through June 30, 2015, our product sales revenues also included Aggrastat ® , an intervention cardiology product launched in China in 2009, in-licensed from Cardiome Pharma Corp (“Cardiome”). In August 2015, we and Cardiome mutually agreed to end our collaboration for Aggrastat, thereby terminating our exclusive distribution rights in China, and return ing all rights to the product to Cardiome. We recorded Aggrastat revenues of $1.8 million, $1.1 million and $0 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively, and we do not expect to generate any further Aggrastat revenues. We do not anticipate that the termination of this agreement wil l adversely affect our profitability.

ZADAXIN has the highest margins in our portfolio as it is a premium product sold exclusively by SciClone. In addition, we anticipate that new marketed products, when and if introduced, can increase the future revenues and profitability of our pharmaceutical business in China over the coming years. Our “promotion services revenues” result primarily from fees we receive for exclusively promoting products in China for Baxter International, Inc. (“Baxter”). We recognize promotion services revenues as a percentage of our collaborators’ product sales revenue for these exclusively promoted products. Over time, as additional proprietary or in-licensed products come to the market, we aim to shift our product mix towards those products providing higher margins for us.

ZADAXIN is approved in over 30 countries and may be used for the treatment of HBV, HCV, and certain ca ncers, and as a n immune system enhancer according to the local regulatory approvals we have in these countries. In China, thymalfasin is included in the treatment guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health (“MOH”) for liver cancer, as well as guidelines for treatment of chronic HBV (issued by both the Chinese Medical Association and the Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver) and invasive fungal infections of critically ill patients (issued by the Chinese Medical Association). Our sales force is focused on increasing sales to the country’s largest hospitals (class 3A with over 500 beds) as well as mid-size hospitals ( class 2A). These hospitals serve Tier 1 and Tier 2 cities located mostly in the eastern part of China, which are the largest and generally have the most affluent populations. We are widening our market strategies by piloting e-commerce approaches to reaching customers. We are also seeking to expand the indications for which ZADAXIN could be used, including sepsis.

We initiated sales and recorded our first product revenue from DC Bead in the third quarter of fiscal 2015. The China Food and Drug Administration had approved the registration of DC Bead for the embolization of malignant hypervascularized tumors in August 2014. DC Bead may be used to treat liver cancer, a large and growing indication in China, and we believe our oncology sales team and academic marketing liaisons have established high quality relationships with medical professionals and institutions that specialize in cancer treatment, which we believe will be a valuable asset as we continue commercial sales of DC Bead. BioCompatibles UK Ltd.

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(“BTG”) and SciClone previously entered into an agreement granting SciClone exclusive licensing and distribution rights to DC Bead in China. Under the agreement, we are purchasing DC Bead product from BTG.

We are also pursuing the registration of several other therapeutic products in China. These include: Loramyc ® , a mucoadhesive tablet formulation of miconazole lauriad to treat oropharyngeal candidiasis; and RapidFilm ® , an oral film formulation of ondansetron to treat nausea induced by chemotherapy.

Our agreement with Baxter is for a 5-yea r term, through December 2017, and our agreement with Pfizer is for a 5-year term, through June 2019. We are pursuing additional agreements to generate additional revenue . We continue to seek in-licensing arrangements for well-differentiated products at various stages of development tha t, if not yet approved, have a defined regulatory approval pathway in China. Our o bjective is to in-license products that provide us with higher margins, augmenting our product sales revenue and profitability, and we continue to explore opportunities to optimize our promotion services revenues.  

In May 2015, Theravance Biopharma, Inc. (“Theravance Biopharma”) granted SciClone exclusive development and commercialization rights to VIBATIV ®   (telavancin) in China, as well as the Hong Kong SAR, the Macau SAR, Taiwan and Vietnam, in exchange for upfront and regulatory milestone payments totaling $6 million. SciClone will be responsible for all aspects of development and commercialization in the partnered regions, including pre- and post-launch activities and product registration. SciClone will initially develop VIBATIV for hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, and additional indications may include complicated skin and skin structure infections and potentially bacteremia. Theravance Biopharma will sell to SciClone all clinical and commercial product required to develop and commercialize VIBATIV in China and our other licensed territories.

In December 2014, we entered into a strategic partnership with The Medicines Company for two cardiovascular products in China. The partnership includes an agreement granting us a license and the exclusive rights in China to promote two products including 1) Angiomax ®   (bivalirudin) for Injection, an anticoagulant indicated in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with provisional use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) and in patients with, or at risk of, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome undergoing PCI for which a Phase 3 registration trial was completed in China and is currently under review by the China Food and Drug Administration for marketing approval, and 2) Cleviprex ®   (clevidipine) Injectable Emulsion, a third-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker indicated for the reduction of blood pressure when oral therapy is not feasible or desirable for which a clinical trial application (CTA) for China was filed in 2013. We received CTA approval from the China Food and Drug Administration (“CFDA”) in early 2016 and are preparing a clinical study. Under the terms of the agreement, we will be responsible for all aspects of commercialization, including pre-and post-launch activities, for both products in the China market (excluding Hong Kong and Macao). We have also agreed to participate in the China registration process for both products. Financial terms of the agreement, in addition to net sales royalties payable to The Medicines Company, include the following additional payments to The Medicines Company: an upfront payment made in the fourth quarter of 2014; a project support services fee; and regulatory/commercial success milestone payments of up to an aggregate of $50.5 million.  

In June 2013, we entered into a license agreement with Taiwan Liposome Company (“TLC”) which granted us a license and the exclusive rights in China, Hong Kong and Macao to promote, market, distribute and sell ProFlow ®   for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (“PAD”) and other indications. PAD is a serious cardiovascular condition in which blood flow to the limbs (usually the legs) is restricted due to arterial plaque build-up. Under the terms of the agreement, TLC will be responsible for the continued development including potential clinical trials and regulatory activities, as well as the manufacture and supply of ProFlow, and we will be responsible for all aspects of commercialization including pre-and post-launch activities. The agreement provides for the principal terms of the arrangement between SciClone and TLC, and in March 2014, the companies entered into a supplemental collaboration and license agreement. In November 2014, TLC was notified by the CFDA that ProFlow did not receive clinical trial approval and TLC is in the process of appealing the decision.

In May 2013, we entered into a framework agreement with Zensun (Shanghai) Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (“Zensun”) for the exclusive promotion, marketing, distribution and sale of Neucardin TM in China, Hong Kong and Macao. Neucardin is a novel, first-in-class therapeutic for the treatment of patients with intermediate to advanced heart failure, for which a New Drug Application (“NDA”) was submitted to and accepted for review by the CFDA in 2012. In December 2013, t he CFDA informed Zensun that its Phase 2 data is insufficient, and has asked Zensun to submit a new NDA once the ongoing Phase 3 study reached its endpoints.   As part of our agreement with Zensun, we agreed to loan up to $12 million to Zensun, of which $12 million had been loaned as of December

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31, 2015 (refer to Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements appearing under Part II, Item 8 for further information regarding the Zensun loans).

For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, we recognized $7 .5 million , $11 million and $5.0 million , respectively, in research and development expenses related to our in-license arrangements.

Recent governmental policy changes in China have eliminated national regulation of the maximum retail drug prices for most drugs effective as of June 1, 2015. Decisions by provincial authorities appear to be emerging as the primary governmental mechanism for price controls. As an example, the Zhejiang provincial authority announced a price limitation for sales of ZADAXIN in the province in April 2015 that became effective in May 2015. We were able to mitigate the impact of this price limitation by shifting an equitable portion of the burden of the price reduction to our distributor in our sales channel; accordingly, the impact of the price reduction through the year ended December 31, 2015 was $2. 8 million. We anticipate that provincial pricing decisions will continue to be a significant factor in the China pharmaceutical market for the foreseeable future. The impact of such decisions on our future results is unpredictable, but we expect that pricing pressures on revenue in 2016 will be offset at least in significant part through sharing of the burden with our China distributor and potentially t hrough volume increases. However, in the future, prices could be reduced to levels significantly below those that would prevail in an unregulated market, which may limit the growth of our revenues or cause them to decline.

As previously disclosed, since 2010 the US Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and the US Department of Justice (“DOJ”) had each been conducting formal investigations of us regarding a range of matters, including the possibility of violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”). On February 4, 2016, we announced that we had entered into a settlement agreement with the SEC fully resolving the SEC’s investigation into possible violations of the FCPA . Under the terms of the settlement agree ment, in February 2016 we paid a total of $12.8 million, including disgorgement, pre-judgment interest and a penalty as final settlement which was released from our restricted escrow account which we funded in the fourth quarter of 2015. This payment is in line with the charges we previously recorded and disclosed in our Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 10, 2015. As part of the agreement we neither admitted nor denied engagement in any wrongdoing and we agreed to give status reports to the SEC for the next three years on our continued remediation and implementation of anti-corruption compliance measures. The DOJ has also completed its related investigation and has declined to pursue any action (refer to Notes 18 and 22 to the consolidated financial statements appearing under Part II, Item 8 and “Legal Proceedings” in Part I, Item 3 for further information regarding the SEC and DOJ investigations).

BUILDING A LEADING INTERNATIONAL PHARMACEUTICAL BUSINESS

Our Established Business in China

In China, we have established product revenue and positive cash flow. We are committed to building on this base and introducing additional pharmaceutical products to meet the country’s evolving healthcare needs. China state leaders are continuing to implement a health care reform plan which, among other things, is seeking to expand patient access to pharmaceuticals. We believe the China pharmaceutical market may grow up to 10% annually over the next several years.

We launched ZADA XIN in China in 1996 and by 2015 our annual worldwide sales of this product reached more than $ 146 million , 96% of which were sales to China. Today, ZADAXIN is one of the largest imported ph armaceutical products in China, measured by revenue. We estimate our market share of thymalfasin by units is approximately 15 %.   Over the last decade, we have established a sales and marketing organization and strong importation relationships with distribution channels that have facilitated strong growth in sales, and profitability, and substantial cash flow. Through our extensive China sales organization of approximately 56 0 professionals including approximately 45 0   sales personnel, we believe we have developed a good reputation and relationships with physicians and administrators. We serve approximately 2,000 hospitals with approximately 300 of the largest hospitals in the major cities in China contributing approximately 80% of our business . We have built a strong commercial presence in liver disease, cancer and the intensive care setting. We are expanding geographically in China to position the Company for further growth. ZADAXIN has strong brand recognition and is positioned as a high-quality, imported product. ZADAXIN is approved in China for the treatment of HBV a nd for use as a n immune system enhancer . It is also included in the treatment guidelines issued by the MOH for liver cancer. In China, orders for ZADAXIN are filled largely by distributors and sub-distributors which purchase ZADAXIN from our selected, established, government-licensed importing agents.

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China accounted for approximately 96%, 97%, and 97% of our net revenues for each of the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 ,   and 2013 , respectively .   In 2015 and 2014 , Sinop harm Holding Lingyun Biopharmaceutical (Shanghai) (“Sinop harm”) accounted for 97 %   and 94 %   of our net revenues , respectively. In 2013, Sinopharm and Sanofi Aventis S.A. accounted fo r 75% and 20% of our net revenues, respectively .   No other customers accounted for more than 10% of our net revenues in those periods. As of December 31, 2015 ,   approximately $38. 3 million or 96 % of our gross accounts receivable were attributable to Sino p harm.

The Chinese government is continuing its efforts to reduce overall health care costs, including pricing controls on pharmaceutical products. Individual provinces in China and, in some cases, individual hospitals can and have established pricing requirements for a product to be included on formulary lists. In some cases, these prices have been significantly lower than our distributors have been selling ZADAXIN, in which case we have been removed from formulary lists, which consequently has reduced sales to certain hospitals and could adversely affect our future sales. The price for pharmaceutical products is regulated in China. The process and timing for price restrictions is unpredictable. In addition, we are aware that ZADAXIN may be used on an off-label basis, and the Chinese government’s pricing, reimbursement or other actions might reduce such uses.

International Sales and Marketing

ZADAXIN is approved in over 30 countries, primarily in China and countries in the Pacific Rim, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East regions. ZADAXIN’s approvals are principally for the treatment of HBV and as a n immune system   enhancer , with additional approvals in certain countries for the treatment of HCV, or as a chemotherapy immune enhancer for cancer patients with weakened immune systems. We sell ZADAXIN in various international markets through our wholly owned subsidiary, SciClone Pharmaceuticals International Ltd. (“SPIL” ).  

SPIL is registered in the Cayman Islands and its principal office is in Hong Kong. SPIL orders ZADAXIN from our European manufacturer and contracts with a third party for the storage of our finished goods inventory at warehousing facilities in Hong Kong. SPIL then distributes our product worldwide from these warehousing facilities based on purchase orders from our customers. Under our established distribution arrangements, local importers and distributors are responsible for the importation, inventory, distribution and invoicing of ZADAXIN after importation.

Product sales of $ 146.1 million ,   $126.1 million ,   and $96.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 , respectively, were from sales of ZADAXIN.

SciClone’s Lead Product ZADAXIN (Thymalfasin)

ZADAXIN is SciClone’s synthetic preparation of thymalfasin, scientifically referred to as thymosin alpha 1, a thymic peptide which circulates in the blood naturally and is instrumental in the immune response to certain cancers and infections. Published scientific and clinical studies have shown that thymalfasin helps to stimulate and direct the body’s immune response to eradicate infectious diseases, such as HBV, HCV, bacterial, and fungal infections; to fight certain cancers such as melanoma and liver cancer; and to enhance response to vaccines. Thymalfasin appears to be well tolerated, with few reports of significant side effects or toxicities associated with its use.

Thymalfasin elicits a variety of immune system responses. Acting on intracellular signaling pathways, thymalfasin increases the Th1 subset of T-helper cells that assist with fighting invading viruses and cancers and leads to a boost in production of antibodies in response to vaccines. Thymalfasin also results in decreased CD-4 cell differentiation into the Th2 subset of CD-4 helper cells that produce cytokines, such as IL-4, which are associated with persistence of viral infection, and stimulates several other components of the immune response that help the body attack and kill virally-infected or tumor cells.

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Thymalfasin f or Treatment of Sepsis

Clinical trials have shown that thymalfasin improves survival in patients in intensive care units being treated for sepsis from severe bacterial infections. One publication describes the results from a large, multicenter, single-blind, randomized, and controlled trial in 361 subjects in China. This study showed that the 28-day mortality from any cause was 26% in the ZADAXIN group, versus 35% in the control group, an effect that is clinically important ( p = 0.062 non-stratified analysis, p = 0.049 log-rank). Greater improvement in the biomarker HLA-DR was also seen in subjects treated with ZADAXIN ( p = 0.037). No serious drug-related adverse events were recorded. These data support the usefulness of ZADAXIN in treating severe sepsis.

Thymalfasin for Enh ancement of Response to Vaccine

Clinical trials have demonstrated that thymalfasin increases response to influenza and hepatitis B vaccines in the elderly and in hemodialysis patients. In elderly subjects, thymalfasin was also shown to decrease the incidence of influenza from 19% in subjects given an influenza vaccine alone, to 6% in subjects receiving thymalfasin treatment in addition to the influenza vaccine. For these clinical trials, the treatment regimen involved 8 to 10 injections of 1.6 mg doses of thymalfasin. A clinical study conducted in 2009/2010 by Sigma-Tau Finanziaria, S.p.A. in Italy, however, showed that a higher dose of thymalfasin (3.2 or 6.4 mg) given only twice (seven days prior to vaccination and on the day of vaccination) was also effective. ZADAXIN in treatment led to a statistically significant increase in the percent of subjects who seroconverted to the H1N1 vaccine (MF59 adjuvanted monovalent vaccine, Focetria™ from Novartis), and an increase in total titers, when measured at 21 or 42 days after vaccination. While this effect was no longer seen at time points 84 and 168 days after vaccination, the enhancement effect of ZADAXIN provided a significant enhancing effect in the critical first six weeks following vaccination. These promising data further support the utility of thymalfasin for use in immune system enhancement.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY AND PROPRIETARY RIGHTS

Patents

We seek regulatory approval for our products in disease areas with high unmet medical need, significant market potential and where we have a proprietary position through patents covering use, manufacturing process, or composition of matter for our products. For our lead product ZADAXIN, we are the licensee or owner of patents and patent applications relating to thymalfasin and its use for a number of diseases. In particular, we are the licensee or owner of patents and applications in the US or China that are directed to thymalfasin therapy for the treatment of hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C as a monotherapy or in combination with other therapeutics, including drugs with or without regulatory approval for marketing. In China, patent number ZL99811382.4 has been granted for ZADAXIN for c hronic h epatitis B that expires in 2019. In addition, we are the licensee or owner of several patents and applications in the US and internationally that are directed to thymalfasin therapy for immune system enhancement. The expiring patent terms for issued or to be issued patents are from 2025 to 203 1 . We are also the licensee or owner of several applications in China that are directed to thymalfasin therapy for the treatment of melanoma. The expiring patent term for these patents, if issued, is 2028. We are also the licensee or owner of patents in the US and China that are directed to thymalfasin therapy for reducing side effects of chemotherapy. The expiring patent terms for these issued patents are from 2020 -2021 . We have also applied for patents in the US and internationally that are directed to thymalfasin therapy for the treatment of severe sepsis and acute infection, as well as more specific patents for certain infections such as Aspergillus and severe acute respiratory syndrome (“SARS”). In addition, we have issued patents in the US and China dire cted to thymalfasin conjugates. We have also applied for patents in the US and internationally that are directed to thymalfasin therapy for p urulent rhinosinusitis. Furthermore, we have applied for patents in the US and internationally that relate to use of thymalfasin as an immune system enhancer for the treatment of cancer. The expiring patent term for these patents, if issued, is 2035.

With respect to our issued patents in the US and Europe, we are also entitled to obtain a patent term extension to extend the patent expiration date. For example, in the US, we can apply for a patent term extension of up to five years for one of the patents covering ZADAXIN if ZADAXIN is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) . The exact duration of the extension depends on the time we spend in clinical trials as well as getting a new drug app lication approval from the FDA.

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Proprietary Rights

In addition to patent protection, we intend to use other means to protect our proprietary rights. We may pursue marketing exclusivity periods that are available under regulatory provisions in certain countries, including the US, Europe, Japan, and China. For example, if we are the first to obtain market approval of a product, e.g., thymalfasin in the US, we would expect to receive at least fi ve years of market exclusivity.

Furthermore, orphan drug exclusivity has been or may be sought where available. Such exclusivity has a term of seven years in the US and 10 years in Europe. We have obtained orphan drug designation for thymalfasin for the treatment of malignant melanoma and chronic hepatitis B in the US and for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in the US and in Europe. We own trademark registrations worldwide for ZADAXIN and other trademarks that appear on our commercial packaging and promotional literature. Copyrights for the commercial packaging may prevent counterfeit products or genuine but unauthorized products from entering a particular country by parallel importation. Brand and trademark protection are particularly important to us in China. We have implemented anti-counterfeiting measures on commercial packaging and we have registered the packaging with customs departments in countries where such procedures exist. We rely upon trade secrets, which we seek to protect in part by entering into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, corporate part ners, suppliers, and licensees.

MANUFACTURING

ZADAXIN is manufactured for us in Europe by third parties under exclusive contract manufacturing and supply agreements. We closely monitor production runs of ZADAXIN and conduct our own quality assurance audit programs. We believe the manufacturing facilities of our contract suppliers are in compliance with the FDA’s current Good Manufacturing Practices (“GMP”), and European equivalents of such standards. In order to sell ZADAXIN to the licensed importers in China, our manufacturers must 1) be approved by the Italian Ministry of Health (“AIFA”) and 2) be accepted by the CFDA, the Chinese regulatory agency, and we must obtain an Imported Drug License from the CFDA permitting the importation of ZADAXIN into China. The license must be renewed every five years, and our next renewal will be required in December 2017. If we change manufacturers, these changes must 1) be approved by AIFA in Italy and 2) be accepted by the CFDA, and we must obtain a new Impor ted Drug License from the CFDA.

In the event of the termination of an agreement with any single supplier, we believe that we would be able to enter into arrangements with other suppliers with similar terms. We do not intend at this time to acquire or establish our own dedicated manufacturing facilities for any of our products. We believe that our current manufacturing partners for ZADAXIN have enough manufacturing capacity to meet potential market demand. We also believe that we will be able to meet our clinical trial needs and market demand for our other drug candidates when needed with our current manufacturing partners and through pursuing new relationships with additional manufacturing partners.

COMPETITION

Our competition for sales of ZADAXIN in China is primarily from generic drug manufacturers located in China that sell their product at lower prices. We compete with them based on our reputation as a provider of high quality products, including the fact that our products are produced at US and western European GMP facilities.

Our competitors for existing and future products include pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology firms, universities and other research institutions, in the US, China and other territories, that are actively engaged in research and development or marketing of products in the therapeutic areas we are pursuing. We believe that the principal competitive factors in this industry for a marketed drug include the efficacy, safety, price, therapeutic regimen, manufacturing, quality assurance and associated patents and the capabilities of its marketer.

Most of our competitors, particularly large pharmaceutical companies, have substantially greater financial, technical, regulatory, manufacturing, marketing and human resource capabilities than ours. Most of them also have extensive experience in undertaking the preclinical and clinical testing and in obtaining the regulatory approvals necessary to market drugs. Additional mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries may result in even more resources being concentrated with our competitors.

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For the treatment of HBV, current therapies being marketed by competitors include interferon alpha, in standard and pegylated forms, nucleoside analogues, such as lamivudine and entecavir, and nucleotide analogue adefovir. In addition to these products, in our largest market, China, ZADAXIN faces competition from other synthetic and generic biological extracts that are locally manufactured and significantly lower priced.

Future clinical trials may or may not show ZADAXIN or our other products in the market or in development to have advantages or value over such existing or future competitive products.

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

Research and development (“R&D”) expenses consist of independent R&D costs relating to the conduct of clinical trials and costs associated with in-licensing arra ngements. R&D expenses were $ 12.3 million ,   $ 14.6 million, $8.0 million, for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively. During 2015, 2014 and 2013, R&D expenses included $7 .5 million, $11.0 million and $5.0 million, respectively, related to upfront and milestone payments made under our in-license arrangements.

During 2015, under our subsidiary SciClone Pharmaceuticals International (Cayman) Development Limited, we incorporated two further subsidiaries, SciClone Pharmaceuticals (Hong Kong) Development Company Ltd., and SciClone Pharmaceuticals (Sha nghai) Development Company Ltd. Our development entities conduct various research and development activities including those relating to in-licensing arrangements and the conduct of clinical trials.

EMPLOYEES

As of December 31, 2015 , we had approximately 590 employees: approximately 56 0 in China, approximately 20 in the US, and approximately 10 in other countries. From time to time , we engage the services of consultants worldwide with pharmaceutical and business backgrounds to assist in our product development an d commercialization activities.

GOVERNMENT REGULATION

Regulation by governmental authorities in the US, China and other foreign countries is a significant factor in the manufacturing and marketing of our products, as well as in ongoing research and development activities and in pre-clinical and clinical trials and testing related to our products. Our products in clinical development in the US, China and other foreign countries are subject to approval by the FDA, the CFDA and similar regulatory authorities .   Manufacturing establishments are subject to inspections by regulatory authorities at the federal, state and local level and must comply with current GMP as established in various jurisdictions. In complying with GMP standards, manufacturers must continue to expend time, money and effort in the area of production and quality assurance to ensure ongoing full technical compliance. We also conduct a separate review of products on an ongoing basis to test and maintain compliance with GMP standards.

China

In China, the pharmaceutical industry is subject to extensive government regulation and supervision. The regulatory framework addresses all aspects of operating in the pharmaceutical industry, including approval, pricing, re-imbursement, production, licensing and certification requirements and procedures, periodic renewal and reassessment processes, registration of new drugs and environmental protection.

The CFDA is the authority that monitors and supervises the administration of pharmaceutical products and medical appliances and equipment as well as food, health food and cosmetics in China. The primary responsibilities of the CFDA include:

·

formulating administrative rules and policies concerning the supervision and administration of food, health food, cosmetics and the pharmaceutical industry;

·

evaluating, registering and approving of new drugs, generic drugs, imported drugs and traditional Chinese medicine;

·

approving and issuing permits for the manufacture and export/import of pharmaceutical products, medical appliances and equipment and approving the establishment of enterprises to be engaged in the manufacture and distribution of pharmaceutical products; and

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·

examining and evaluating the safety of food, health food and cosmetics and handling significant accidents involving these products.

The MOH is an authority at the ministerial level under the State Council and is primarily responsible for national public health and has administrative responsibility for the CFDA. The MOH performs a variety of tasks in relation to the health industry such as establishing social medical institutes, promulgating national regulations, and producing professional codes of ethics for public medical personnel. The MOH is also responsible for international issues, such as those pertinent to for eign companies and governments.

Drug Administration Laws and Regulations

The China Drug Administration Law and related regulations provide the legal framework for the establishment of pharmaceutical manufacturing enterprises, and pharmaceutical trading enterprises, and for the administration of pharmaceutical products, including the development and manufacturing of new drugs, the import of pharmaceuticals and the regulation of packaging, trademarking and advertising of ph armaceutical products in China.

Permits and Licenses for Importation, Manufacturing and Registration of Drugs

Imported Drug License. Our strategy to date has been to seek approval for the import into China of drugs approved in other markets. We must obtain an Imported Drug License from the CFDA to import a phar maceutical product into China.

To qualify to receive an Imported Drug License from the CFDA, each manufacturing establishment must be registered with the FDA or European (“EMA”) regulatory authorities where the product is registered for sale and listed on the Certificate of Pharmaceutical Product (“CPP” or Country of Origin Approval). In general, the CFDA also requires that an imported drug must also have country of origin approval for the same indication for which an Imported Drug License is applied .

As a result, in order to obtain and maintain an Imported Drug License in China, we or our partners must also meet the regulatory requirements for the country of origin of the pharmaceutical products we import, or are s eeking to import, into China.

The process for applying for and obtaining an Imported Drug License can be protracted and uncertain. In addition to the submission of clinical data from trials outside China, the CFDA may require additional clinical data, including from studies in China, and it may conduct its own inspection and testing of manufacturing facilities and of finished product. An Imported Drug License needs to be renewed every five years. Further, if the manufacturer of the pharmaceutical product changes, an additional approval is required from the CFDA, and approval will also have to be obtained in the country from which the product is imported.

For ZADAXIN, the CPP is in Italy, and was issued by the AIFA. The named manufacturer of ZADAXIN is Patheon Italia S.p.A. DC Bead is manufactured by Biocompatibles UK Ltd. and its Country of Origin approval is the United Kingdom .   We and our partners need to maintain these approvals.

China requires that products with an Imported Drug License be imported through approved importing agents. At each port of entry, prior to moving the product forward to the distributors, government-licensed importing agents must process and evaluate each shipment to determine whether such shipment satisfies China' s quality control requirements.

GMP Certificates.  Our current products and our clinical candidates in China are all manufactured outside China and are subject to GMP standards in the country in which they are manufactured. Our manufacturers are subject to site inspections by the regulatory authorities in the jurisdictions in which they are located. The issuance and renewal of an Imported Drug License is dependent, among other things, upon maintaining manufacturing standards that comply with the GMP standards of a widely recognized regulatory authority, such as the FDA or EMEA.

If we were to manufacture product in China, or obtain product from Chinese contract manufacturers, such manufacturing would be subject to similar GMP standards established in China and admi nistered by local authorities.

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Distribution of Pharmaceutical Products

According to the China Drug Administration Law and related regulations, a manufacturer of pharmaceutical products in China can only engage in the trading of the pharmaceutical products that the manufacturer has produced itself. In addition, such manufacturer can only sell its products to:

·

wholesalers and retailers holding pharmaceutical trading permits;

·

other holders of pharmaceutical manufacturing permits; or

·

medical practitioners holding medical practice permits.

A pharmaceutical manufacturer in China is prohibited from selling its products to end-users, or individuals or entities other than holders of Pharmaceutical Trading Permits, the pharmaceutical manufacturing permits o r the medical practice permits.

A pharmaceutical distributor (including wholesalers and retailers) must satisfy requirements as to: personnel with pharmaceutical expertise, appropriate warehousing and sanitary environments compatible with the distributed pharmaceutical products; quality management and compliance with regulations to ensure the quality of the distributed pharmaceutical products. Operations of pharmaceutical distributors must be conducted in accordance with the Pharmaceutical Operation Quality Management Rules and require a certificate from the CFDA. Pharmaceutical distributors must comply with record-keeping requirements regarding the products sold.

Price Control s  

Prior to June 1, 2015, the price of pharmaceutical products in China was controlled and regula ted by the Chinese government. The retail prices of pharmaceutical products included in the National Essential Drug List and the National Basic Medical Insurance Drugs, Work-Related Injury Insurance Drugs and Maternity Insurance Drugs Catalogue ( the “Catalogue”) , as well as those pharmaceutical products whose production or distribution are deemed to constitute monopolies were subject to price controls in the form of f ixed prices or price ceilings. The prices of medicines that were not subject to price controls were determined at the discretion of the respective pharmaceutical companies.

With the promulgation of the Circular on Issuing the Opinions on Promoting Drug Price Reform jointly by the National Development and Reform Commission and several other government agencies (t he “Circular”), starting from June 1, 2015, pharmaceutical products (other than anesthetics and Class I psychotropic drugs which are still subject to fixed ex-factory price and retail ceiling price controls ) are no longer subject to price cont rols by the Chinese Government. Since the Circular is very new, it is not clear how e xactly it will be implemented. Although most of the pharmaceutical products are no longer subject to fixed prices or price ceilings, the Chinese government could still influence the setting of the prices through the government bidding process and its management of the reimbursement system, as discussed below.

Reimbursement under the National Medical Insurance Program

The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security (“MOHRSS”), together with other government authorities, determine which medicines are to be included in or removed from the   Catalogue for the National Medical Insurance Program, as well as the category under which a medicine should fall in the Catalogue. There are two categories under the Catalogue: Category A and Category B. Category B medicine s are generally more expensive than Category A medicine s. A National Medical Insurance Program participant can be reimbursed for the full cost of a Category A medicine but only a certain percentage of a   Category B medicine .  Whether a medicine should be included in the Catalogue depends on a number of factors, including whether the medicine is used in large quantities and commonly prescribed, and whether it is considered to be important in meeting the basic healthcare needs of the general public.

Although the National Medical Insurance Program is designated as a national program, the implementation of the National Medical Insurance Program is delegated to various provincial governments, each of which has established its own medicine catalog ue .     A provincial government must include all Category A medicines listed in the Catalogue in its provincial medicine catalog ue and may

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not downgrade a nationally classified Category A medicine to Category B .  For Category B medicines listed in the Catalogue , provincial governments have the discretion to add or subtract by no more than 15% .  

The amount in a participant’s individual medical insurance account varies, depending upon the amount of contributions from the participant and his or her employer.   Generally, program participants who are from relatively wealthier eastern parts of China and relatively wealthier metropolitan centers have greater amounts in their individual accounts than those from less developed provinces.  

Government Procurement

Most of the hospitals in China are State-owned. P harmaceutical products covered by the National Medical Insurance Program are generally procured by the government through a tender process. The tender process is typically conducted by the provincial health authorities every year or every few years. A government-appointed committee reviews bids submitted by pharmaceutical companies and selects one or more products for the treatment of a particular medical condition. The selection is based on a number of factors, including bid price, quality and a   manufacturer’s reputation and service. Once a product is selected by the committee, the state-owned hospitals in the province will purchase the product at the tender price submitted by the pharmaceutical company. However, starting from February 2015, the State Council had encouraged hospitals in some pilot cities to renegotiate the supply price s of the product s selected to further drive down the price.

Healthcare Reform

The Chinese government is undertaking a major reform of its medical insurance system. The MOHRSS is responsible for the reform of the medical insurance system. At present, the medical insurance system   consists of three basic medical insurances: (i) the Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance Scheme,   which is a mandatory health insurance program for urban employees and retirees; (ii) the Urban   Resident Basic Medical Insurance Scheme, which is a voluntary program for other urban residents;   and (iii) the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme, or NRCMS, which is a voluntary program for all   rural residents.   The coverage of China’s urban/rural basic medical insurance extended from   approximately 10% in 2004 to approximately 94% and 100% in 2009 and 2013, respectively. As of December 31, 2014, the two urban insurance schemes covered 597 million urban residents and the NRCMS   covered approximately 736 million rural residents. In addition, the budget and actual amount of medical   and healthcare expenditure s of the Ministry of Finance have been increasing since 2009, with both   exceeding 900 billion   Chinese Yuan Renminbi (“RMB”) in 2014.

Our Challenges

Our ability to successfully commercialize our products in China as well as in other parts of the world depends in part on the extent to which coverage and reimbursement to patients will be available from government health care programs, private health insurers and other third-party payors or organizations, as well as on the level of reimbursement. Significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of therapeutic products, such as ZADAXIN or other drugs we may develop.   In most of the markets in which we are currently approved to sell ZADAXIN, reimbursement for ZADAXIN under government or private health insurance programs is not yet available. In many of these countries government resources and per capita income may be so low that our products would be prohibitively expensive and therefore will not be covered by government health insurance program.

In November 2009, thymalfasin, the generic chemical name for our pharmaceutical product ZADAXIN, was included as a Catego ry B product in the Catalogue. However, since the Catalogue is amended every two years, there is no assurance that ZADAXIN will remain on the Catalog ue with subsequent amendments. Furthermore, since the provinces have the discretion to exclude Category B products in the Catalogue from the provincial catalogue within certain limit s , t here is no assurance that ZADAXIN will be included in all the provincial catalogues. Even if ZADAXIN is included in the catalogue of a province, we may not be the successful bidder in the government bidding process.

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US, Europe and Other Countries

The regulatory regime for the approval for drug distribution and marketing in the US and Europe is similar in many respects to the regulatory system in China. The steps required before a new drug may be distributed commercially generally include:

conducting appropriate pre-clinical laboratory evaluations, including animal studies, in compliance with the FDA's Good Laboratory Practice (“GLP”) requirements, to assess the potential safety and efficacy of the product;

submitting the results of these evaluations and tests to the FDA in an Investigational New Drug Application (“ IND ”) , and receiving approval from the FDA that the clinical studies proposed under the IND are allowed to proceed;

conducting adequate and well-controlled clinical trials in compliance with the FDA's Good Clinical Practice (“GCP”) requirements that establish the safety and efficacy of the product candidate for the intended use, typically in the same Phase 1, Phase 2 and Phase 3 st eps described above for China;

development of manufacturing processes that conform to FDA current Good Manufacturing Practices, or cGMPs, as confirmed by FDA inspection;

submitting to the FDA the results of pre-clinical studies, clinical studies, and adequate data on chemistry, manufacturing and control information to ensure reproducible product quality batch after batch, in a New Drug Application (“NDA”) or Biologics License Application (“BLA”); and

obtaining FDA approval of the NDA, including inspection and approval of the product manufacturing facility as compliant with cGMP requirements, prior to any commercial sale or shipme nt of the pharmaceutical agent.

After FDA approval has been obtained, the FDA requires post-marketing reporting to monitor the side effects of the drug. This may include phase 4 studies in which the drug is studied in an expanded patient population in a post-approval setting for continued monitoring of safety and sometimes continued efficacy.

We must comply with the regulations of each country in which we seek approval of and intend to market and sell any product.

AGREEMENTS WITH THIRD PARTIES

We hold license, promotion, distribution or marketing agreements with a number of parties for products currently marketed or under development, including an agreement with Biocompatibles UK Ltd (“Biocompatible s ”) for the distribution of DC Bead ® in China .   We had agreements during 2015 with several companies for the distribution of certain products in China including the following significant agreements. We have additional license agreements with other parties.

MEDA Pharma GmbH & Co. KG (“MEDA”) Agreement . We are party to an agreement with MEDA for various products under development including Tramadol. See Part I, Item 3 “Legal Proceedings” regarding the status of our agreement with MEDA from whom we license Tramadol.

Baxter Healthcare Trading (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. (“ Baxter”)   Agreement.   In June 2013, our subsidiary, NovaMed Pharmaceuticals (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. (“ NovaMed Shanghai ”) , entered into an Amended and Restated Product Promotion Agreement with Baxter for the distribution of Holoxan TM , Mesna TM , and Endoxan TM in China effective January 1, 2013. Under the agreement, we   market products from Baxter for sale in China, with a promotion fee specified in the agreement. To maintain our exclusive rights, we must meet certain unit volume requirements. The agreement will expire on December 31, 2017, unless renewed.

Pfizer International Trading (Shanghai) Ltd. (“Pfizer”)   Agreement. In July 2014, our subsidiary, NovaMed Shanghai, renewed its promotion and distribution relationship with Pfizer by entering into an Import and Service Agreement for the continued distribution of several pharmaceutical products (currently Methotrexate TM , Estracyt TM , and Farlutal TM ) in China. Under the agreement, we must purchase product from Pfizer for sale in China at prices specified in the agreement. The purchase prices are subject to adjustment in certain circumstances. To maintain our exclusive rights, we must meet certain unit volume requirements. The agreement will expire June 30, 2019 , unless renewed .  

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Correvio LLC Agreement ( acquired by Cardiome Pharma Corp. (“Cardiome”) in November 2013) .   In December 2008, our subsidiary, NovaMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“NovaMed”), entered into a licensing and distribution agreement with Correvio LLC for the distribution of Aggrastat ® in China. In August 2015, Cardiome and NovaMed mutually agreed to end their collaboration for Aggrastat, resulting in the Company’s obligation to return all rights to the product to Cardiome.

Zensun (Shanghai) Science & Technology Co., Ltd . (“Zensun”) Agreement . In May 2013, our subsidiary, SciClone Pharmaceuticals International China Holding Ltd. (“SciClone China”), entere d into an agreement with Zensun granting SciClone China a license and the exclusive rights in China, Hong Kong and Macao to promote, market, distribute and sell Neucardin™, a novel, first-in-class therapeutic drug for the treatment of patients with intermediate to advanced chronic heart failure (CHF). The agreement provides for the principal terms of the arrangement between SciClone China and Zensun, and the companies have agreed to negotiate a supplemental license and supply agreement.

Taiwan Liposome Compan y (“TLC”) Agreement .   In June 2013, we entered into an agreement with TLC granting us a license and the exclusive righ ts in China, Hong Kong and Macao to promote, market, distribute and sell ProFlow® for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and other indications. The agreement provides for the principal terms of our arrangement with TLC, and in March 2014, we entered into a collaboration and license agreement. In November 2014, TLC was notified by the CFDA that ProFlow did not received clinical trial approval and TLC is in the process of appealing the decision.

The Medicines Company Agreement.  In December 2014, we entered into an agreement with The Medicines Company granting us a license and the exclusive rights in China to promote, market, distribute and sell two cardiovascular products:  Angiomax®, an anticoagulant indicated in certain patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and Cleviprex®, a third-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker for the reduction of blood pressure.

Theravance Biopharma, In c . In May 2015, we entered into an agreement with Theravance Biopharma granting us exclusive development and commercialization rights to VIBATIV ® (telavancin) in China, as well as the Hong Kong SAR, the Macau SAR, Taiwan and Vietnam. Under the terms of the agreement Theravance Biopharma will sell to us all clinical and commercial product required to develop and commercialize VI BATIV in China and our other licensed territories.

Our continued distribution of approved products depends upon the continuation of these agreements and the renewal of the agreements upon expiration.

Information about Segment and Geographic Revenue

Additional information about segment and geographic revenue is set forth in Note 20 of our Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

AVAILABLE INFORMATION

We file electronically with the SEC our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. The public may read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. The public may obtain information on the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that site is http://www.sec.gov.

You may obtain a free copy of our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, on the day of filing with the SEC on our website on the World Wide Web at http://www.sciclone.com, by contacting the Investor Relations Department at our corporate offices by calling 800-724-2566 or by sending an e-mail message to investorrelations@sciclone.com .

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Item 1A.  Risk Factors  

You should carefully consider the risks described below, in addition to the other information in this report on Form 10-K, before making an investment decision. Each of these risk factors could adversely affect our business, financial condition, and operating results as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our common stock .  

Our stock price may be volatile, and an investment in our stock could suffer a decline in value.

Although we reported net income of $ 29. 5 million ,   $ 25.2 million, $11.0 million, for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively, we have experienced significant operating losses in the p ast, and as of December 31, 2015 , we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $ 118 million . If our operating expenses were to increase or if we were not able to increase or sustain revenue, we may not maintain profitability over the next 12 months.

The market price of our common stock has experienced, and may continue to experience, substantial volatility due to many factors, some of which we have no control over, including:

·

government regulatory action affecting our Company or our drug products or our competitors' drug products in China, the US and other foreign countries, including the effect of government initiatives in China, particularly the Chinese government’s increasing regulation of the pharmaceutical industry through anti-corruption activities ;  

·

government regulatory action intended to reduce pharmaceutical prices such as the reduction in the governmentally permitted maximum listed price for our products and increased oversight of the health care market and pharmaceutical industry;

·

compliance by our employees with regulations that are applicable to sales and marketing activities, including the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act;

·

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly operating results, some of which may result from undertaking new clinical development projects, or from licensing or acquisition-related expenses including up-front fees, milestone payments, and other items;

·

progress and results of clinical trials and the regulatory approval process in Europe and in China;

·

timing and achievement of our corporate objectives;

·

charges related to expired inventory or bad debt;

·

terminations of, or changes in our agreements or relationships with collaborative partners;

·

announcements of technological innovations or new products by us or our competitors;

·

announcement and completion of corporate acquisition, merger, licensing or marketing arrangements, or sales of assets;

·

developments or disputes concerning patent or proprietary rights;

·

changes in the composi tion of our management team or B oa rd of D irectors;

·

changes in company assessments or financial estimates by securities analysts;

·

changes in assessments of our internal control over financial reporting;

·

general stock market conditions and fluctuations for the emerging growth and pharmaceutical market sectors;

·

unanticipated increases in our G&A expense due to legal and accounting expenses, including expenses relating to our dispute with MEDA, and arising out of matters relating to any additional or uncorrected control deficiency or related matters;

·

economic and political conditions in the US or abroad, particularly in China;

·

currency fluctuations between t he RMB and US Dollar (“USD”) including recent RMB devaluation that has led to , and may continue to lead to, downward adjustments in our importer price if further devaluation continues;

·

broad financial market fluctuations in the US, Europe or Asia; and

·

More aggressive taxation policy by the government in China.

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Any acquisitions we may undertake involve a number of risks, and we may not realize all the anticipated benefits of an acquisition. We may acquire other companies or products that present risks similar to those stated above.

We may enter into other company or product acquisition transactions in the future which could present integration or other risks similar to those stated above and may also cause us to:

·

issue common stock that would dilute our current shareholders’ percentage ownership;

·

assume liabilities, some of which may be unknown at the time of such acquisitions;

·

record goodwill and intangible assets that would be subject to impairment testing and potential periodic impairment charges;

·

incur amortization expenses related to certain intangible assets; and

·

incur large and immediate write-offs of in-process research and development costs; or become subject to litigation.

Our revenue will continue to be substantially dependent on our sales of ZADAXIN in China.

Our product revenue is highly dependent on the sales of ZADAXIN in China. We anticipate that sales of ZADAXIN will continue to be a majority of our revenue for at least the next two years. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 approximately 96 %, 96% and 95% of our ZADAXIN sales, respectively, were to customers in China. Sales of ZADAXIN in China may be limited due to the low average personal income, lack of patient cost reimbursement, poorly developed infrastructure and competition from other products, including generics. ZADAXIN sales growth in recent years has benefited from the rapidly growing Chinese economy and growing personal disposable income. Sales of ZADAXIN in China could be adversely affected by a slowing or downturn of the Chinese economy and from the recent and future decisions of provincial agencies’ pricing reform.

In China, ZADAXIN is approved for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (“HBV”) and as an   immune system enhancer . We face competition from pharmaceutical companies who are aggressively marketing competing products for the treatment of HBV and for other indications where we believe ZADAXIN may be used on an off-label basis. In addition, several local companies are selling lower-priced, locally manufactured generic thymalfasin, which is a competitive product and is selling in substantial and increasing quantities. While generic products outsell ZADAXIN in unit volumes, we have been able to maintain a pricing advantage through the reputation of our imported, branded product. We believe such competition will continue with added new local manufacturers of generic thymalfasin and there could be a negative impact on the price and the volume of ZADAXIN sold in China, which would harm our business. Our efforts to in-license or acquire other pharmaceutical products for marketing in China and other markets may be unsuccessful or even if successful may not have a meaningful effect on our dependence on ZADAXIN sales in those markets.

Sales of ZADAXIN may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter due to financing limitations on importers, changes in inventory levels at our customers, and surges in sales and inventories due to epidemics. Importers and distributors of ZADAXIN borrow funds in China from banks to purchase, hold and distribute ZADAXIN. Substantial increases in restrictions on fund availability and/or increases in borrowing costs could limit the ability of our importers and distributors to finance their import and distribution process. Further, our customers tend to purchase large orders, and inventory levels may fluctuate significantly as a result, or as a result of changes in the distribution channel, potentially affecting quarterly periodic results.

During the third quarter of 2012, we estimated that there was a substantial increase in ZADAXIN channel inventory levels and we believe that our sales to our customers exceeded the pace at which our customers were able to sell the ZADAXIN through to other parties, primarily hospital pharmacies. As a result, ZADAXIN revenues were lower in the first half of 2013, as compared to the same period of 2014. We believe channel inventory has returned to normal levels, and we continue to believe that we will grow demand for ZADAXIN through increased penetration in the market; however, we may not be successful or we may experience future fluctuations in channel inventory either of which could adversely affect our future ZADAXIN revenue.

We could experience fluctuations in channel inventory due to actual or expected epidemics. For example, during the second quarter of 2009, we experienced a strong upsurge in ZADAXIN sales, which we believe was attributable both to the increasing penetration of ZADAXIN within the Chinese market, as well as concerns in China from the H1N1 influenza virus. If distributors and hospitals that purchase ZADAXIN stockpile more ZADAXIN than needed for current use, our subsequent sales of ZADAXIN may suffer as distributors and hospitals use ZADAXIN already in their inventory before purchasing additional product from us. This could lead to uneven future revenue results for ZADAXIN and in turn materially impact our cash flows and business condition.

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The Chinese government has previously imposed price restrictions on ZADAXIN and several of our oncology products. If we experience difficulties in our sales efforts as a result, our operating results and financial condition will be harmed.

The Chinese government is increasing its efforts to reduce overall health care costs, including pricing controls on pharmaceutical products. Individual provinces in China and, in some cases, individual hospitals can and have established pricing requirements for a product to be included on formulary lists. In some cases, these price limits have been significantly lower than prices at which our distributors have been selling ZADAXIN, in which case we have been removed from formulary lists, which consequently has reduced sales to certain hospitals and could adversely affect our future sales.

Recent governmental policy changes in China have eliminated national regulation of the maximum retail drug prices for most drugs, effective June 1, 2015. Decisions by provincial authorities are emerging as the primary governmental mechanism for price controls. As an example, the Zhejiang provincial authority announced a price limitation for sales of ZADAXIN in the province in April 2015 that became effective in May 2015; we were able to mitigate the impact of this price limitation by sharing the burden of the price reduction with our distributor. For fiscal 2015, we were able to mitigate the impact of this price limitation by shifting an equitable portion of the burden of the price reduction to our China distributor. We anticipate that provincial pricing decisions will continue to be a significant factor in the China pharmaceutical market for the foreseeable future. The impact of such decisions on our future results is unpredictable, but we expect that pricing pressures in 2016 will be offset at least in significant part through sharing of any potential further burden with our China distributor and potenti ally through volume increases.  However, in the future, prices could be reduced to levels significantly below those that would prevail in an unregulated market, which may limit the growth of our revenues or cause them to decline.  

The pricing regulations in China, whether operating at a national, provincial or institutional level, as well as regulation of the importation of pharmaceutical products, have reduced retail prices of, and our own revenue from, ZADAXIN and our other products, and we expect that pricing pressure will continue. While the regulatory mechanisms are changing and the ultimate outcome is uncertain, and while we have been able to mitigate the impact of prior price reductions on our overall business, prices could be reduced to levels significantly below those that would prevail in an unregulated market, limit the volume of product which may be imported and sold or place high import duties on the product, any of which may limit the growth of our revenues or cause them to decline.

While over the long term, we believe that the price reductions may positively affect our sales volumes and result in broader penetration into Tier 3 and Tier 2 cities in target geographies, potentially increasing our total sales revenues from these products, the process and timing for any price restrictions is unpredictable and further price reduction could be imposed that could adversely affect our business. In addition, our new contractual arrangement with our China distributor, Sinopharm ,   which commenced January 1, 2016 ,   will result in the later recognition (relative to practices prevailing through December 31, 2015) of a portion of our revenue invoiced to Sinopharm in   situations where the provincial tender price is greater relative to a referenced (baseline) tender price .   This is due to a mechanism in the new contractual arrangement whereby the customer is invoiced at a lower base price relative to that prevailing in the previous agreement. The lower base price (as well as estimated price compensation payable due to the distributor for situations where the provincial tender price is lower than the referenced (baseline) tender price) will be recorded as revenue after the sale is completed. The distributor will then be invoiced for the portion of the price that may result from situations where the provincial tender price is greater than the referenced (baseline) tender price at a later time, and such amount will be recognized as revenue after the amount has been agreed to with the distributor. Although we do not expect this new arrangement to have a signi ficant impact on annual revenue or the amount recognized on an annual basis , it may impact quarterly revenue amounts and timing , especially for the first quarter of 2016 .

Our business strategy is dependent in part on our agreements with third parties for the rights to develop and commercialize products, or promote products, particularly in China. We have experienced challenges in maintaining some of our agreements and if we fail to enter into additional agreements, our business will suffer.

Our sales and marketing strategy in China depends significantly on agreements with third parties, and potentially on entering into additional agreements with third parties, or renegotiating agreements with third parties. Except for ZADAXIN, our rights to develop, market and sell our products in China, including licensed products and products currently promoted or sold by our subsidiaries, NovaMed and NovaMed Shanghai, are held by us under license, promotion, distribution or marketing agreements with third parties. These agreements for products include DC Bead, a product which we launched commercially in the third quarter of 2015, and products in the regulatory review process, including products in clinical trials that are held under license, distribution or marketing agreements. In addition, our success in the future may be dependent on entering into similar agreements with other parties and the

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renewal of any such agreements. The third parties to these agreements are generally not under an obligation to renew the agreements. If any of these agreements are terminated, or if they are not renewed, our ability to distribute, or develop, the products or product candidates could be terminated and our business could be affected.

All of our products were originally obtained by us under licenses, promotion, distribution or similar third-party agreements. We do not conduct product discovery and our ability to bring new products to market is dependent upon our entering into additional acquisition, in-licensing, promotion or distribution agreements, particularly in China. The competition for attractive products is intense, and we cannot be certain that we will be able to negotiate in-license, promotion or distribution agreements for additional products in the future.

While in June 2013 we renewed our promotion agreement with Baxter for a 5-year term through December 2017 and in July 2014 we renewed our product distribution agreement with Pfizer for a 5-year term through June 2019, our promotion agreements with Sanofi were not renewed and expired on December 31, 2013. In addition, in August 2015, we and Cardiome mutually agreed to end our collaboration for Aggrastat, and return all rights to the product to Cardiome. We continue to assess the financial performance of the products we promote under our agreements and their overall value within our entire portfolio of products. Over time, we anticipate the product mix that we promote will change which may affect our revenues and profitability in the future .   Terminations or failures to renew these or any other agreement as to some or all of the products covered by the agreement could result in a decline in revenue and in other costs including restructuring charges if a resulting revenue decline required us to reduce costs.   On the other hand, if we are successful in negotiating better terms there may be a positive impact on our revenues and profitability.

If our products do not meet standards established by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, we could lose our license to import products to China for commercial sale, which could negatively affect our revenues and operating results .

Our products are subject to standards established by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, or ChP. The ChP is an official compendium of drugs in China and sets the standards of purity, description, test, dosage, precaution, storage and the strength for each drug in China. The ChP is revised from time to time, with the most recent revisions set forth in a 2015 edition. If our products fail to meet ChP specifications during routine customs testing as such specifications may be revised from time to time, our import drug licenses (IDLs), which allow the importation for commercial sale, may be revoked, which would result in a significant loss of revenue and materially adversely affect our business.

Our revenue will continue to be substantially dependent on our maintaining regulatory licenses and compliance with other regulations.

We have received regulatory approvals to import and market ZADAXIN in China and to manufacture ZADAXIN and export the product from Italy. In order to continue our sales to China, we need to maintain these approvals. Our license to import ZADAXIN into China needs to be renewed every five years and the next renewal is required in December 2017. Although renewals in the past were obtained successfully, there is no assurance that SciClone will receive renewals in the future when applied for or that the renewals will not be conditioned or limited in ways that limit our ability to sell ZADAXIN to China.

Our licenses to manufacture and export ZADAXIN from Italy are dependent upon our continuing compliance with regulations in Italy. Our business would be adversely affected if we are not able to maintain these approvals. In order to sell ZADAXIN to the licensed importers in China, our manufacturers must 1) be approved by the Italian Ministry of Health (“AIFA”) and 2) be accepted by the CFDA. Some manufacturing changes may require: 1) approval by AIFA in Italy and/or 2) be accepted by the CFDA, the Chinese equivalent of the FDA. In addition, we must obtain an IDL from the CFDA in order to sell ZADAXIN to the licensed importers in China. ZADAXIN registration in Italy has been essential to the renewal of our IDL from the CFDA permitting the importation of ZADAXIN into China. Our ability to continue to renew our IDL from the CFDA permitting the importation of ZADAXIN into China could be adversely affected, if we were to fail to maintain ZADAXIN registration in Italy. The CFDA, AIFA and other regulatory agencies may, and have, changed their internal administrative rules in ways that may delay or complicate the regulatory approval process. Those changes are not always disclosed or known to us and we may experience unexpected delays or additional costs as a result of such changes. Our product has been distributed in Italy through BioFutura Pharma Srl (“BioFutura”), a subsidiary of Sigma-Tau Finanziaria, S.p.A. (“Sigma-Tau”). In August 2012, we entered into an agreement with BioFutura to continue to distribute ZADAXIN for SciClone in Italy. However, if we are not able to continue this arrangement, we will need to establish alternative distribution operations in Italy to ensure continuing compliance with regulations in Italy and maintain our Italian licenses.

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Our ZADAXIN sales and operations in China and in other parts of the world are subject to a number of risks and increasing regulations, including difficulties and delays in obtaining registrations, renewals of registrations, permits, pricing approvals and reimbursement, increasing regulation of product promotion and selling practices, unexpected changes in regulatory requirements and political instability.

Our resolution with government agencies in connection with violations by us of the US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.

As previously disclosed, since 2010 the SEC and the DOJ had each been conducting formal investigations of us regarding a range of matters, including possible violations of the FCPA, primarily related to certain historical sales and marketing activities with respect to our China operations. In response to these matters, our Board appointed the Special Committee to oversee our response to the government inquiry. Based on an initial review, the Special Committee decided to undertake an independent investigation as to matters reflected in and arising from the SEC and DOJ investigations in order to evaluate whether any violation of the FCPA or other laws occurred.

On February 4, 2016, we announced that we entered into a settlement agreement with the SEC fully resolving the SEC's investigation into possible violations of the FCPA and that the DOJ had also completed its related investigation and has declined to pursue any action. Under the terms of the settlement agreement with the SEC, SciClone paid a total of $12.8 million, including disgorgement, pre-judgment interest and a penalty .   The payment is in line with the charges the Company previously recorded and disclosed in its Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 10, 2015. As part of the agreement, we neither admitted nor denied engagement in any wrongdoing a nd we agreed to give status reports to the SEC for the next three years on our continued remediation and implementation of anti-corruption compliance measures

While we have resolved the previously pending matters with the SEC and DOJ, whether by virtue of announcement of the settlement agreement and the SEC Order or otherwise, we may be subject to investigations by foreign governments or further claims by third parties arising from conduct subject to the investigation or our other international operations. In addition, the remedial actions we have taken or may take as a result of such investigations may adversely affect our business in China and other countries, including adversely affecting our ability to obtain license renewals or other administrative approvals we require to conduct business in China and other countries.

Despite the resolution of the SEC and DOJ matters, we may be subject to additional investigations or regulatory actions in the future.

Despite the settlement of our SEC and DOJ matters, we may be subject to additional investigations in the future. We are unable to predict what ultimate consequences any investigation by any regulatory or law enforcement agency may have on us. Regulatory investigations that might be initiated in the future could result in substantial expenses, management diversion of attention, and harm to our business. If we fail to comply with regulations or to carry out controls on our Chinese or other foreign operations in a manner that satisfies all applicable laws, our business would be harmed. Any civil or criminal action commenced against us by a regulatory or law enforcement agency, including in China, could result in administrative orders against us, the imposition of significant penalties and/or fines against us, and/or the imposition of civil or criminal sanctions against certain of our officers, directors and/or employees.

If we fail to achieve or maintain an effective system of internal controls, we may not be able to accurately report our financial results. As a result, current and potential stockholders could lose confidence in our financial reporting, which would harm our business and the trading price of our stock.

Effective internal controls are necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and to protect from fraudulent, illegal or unauthorized transactions. If we cannot establish effective controls and provide reliable financial reports, our business and operating results could be harmed. Moreover, as a US-based corporation doing business in China, these controls often need to satisfy the requirements of Chinese law as well as the requirements of US law which frequently differ in certain aspects. We have in the past discovered, and may in the future discover, areas of our internal controls that need improvement. For example, during the third quarter of 2012, our management determined that we had a material weakness in internal control over financial reporting related to the design and operation of our controls primarily associated with product returns reserves and the override of certain controls in the financial statement close process related to our NovaMed subsidiary. Furthermore, during the fourth quarter of 2012, our management determined that we had an additional indicator of the same material weakness related to the timing of revenue recognition for our Pfizer products and the override of related controls at our NovaMed subsidiary, and the corporate monitoring thereof. During fiscal

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2014, we designed and implemented procedures to address the material weakness disclosed in our Annual Reports on Form 10-K for the years ended December 31, 2013 and 2012 related to the design and operating effectiveness of certain corporate monitoring controls. Management designed and implemented corporate monitoring controls and other controls that provided increased oversight over our China operations, and has remediated the material weakness as of December 31, 2014. We continuously work on improvements to our internal controls and there can be no assurance that these or other material weaknesses will not occur in the future, or otherwise cause us to inaccurately report our financial statements. For example, the restatement of our financial statements for each of our first, second, and third quarters of 2012, and our financial statements for each of the second and third quarters of 2011 and the year ended December 31, 2011, were in part caused by the material weakness related to the design and operation of our controls disclosed as of December 31, 2012 discussed above. Any failure to implement and maintain controls over our financial reporting or difficulties encountered in the implementation of improvements in our controls, could cause us to fail to meet our reporting obligations. Any failure to improve our internal controls or to address identified weaknesses in the future, if they were to occur, could also cause investors to lose confidence in our reported financial information, which could have a negative impact on the trading price of our stock.

Compliance with changing regulations concerning corporate governance and public disclosure has resulted in and may continue to result in additional expenses. Changing laws, regulations and standards relating to corporate governance and public disclosure, including the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, new SEC regulations and The NASDAQ Stock Market rules, are creating uncertainty for companies such as ours and costs are increasing as a result of this uncertainty and other factors. We are committed to maintaining high standards of corporate governance and public disclosure. As a result, we intend to invest all reasonably necessary resources to comply with evolving standards, and this investment has and may continue to result in increased general and administrative expenses and a diversion of management time and attention from revenue-generating activities to compliance activities.

There can be no assurance that the strategic alternative process will result in pursuing or completing a particular transaction.

In early February 2016, we announced that our Board of Directors had initiated a process to identify, examine and consider a range of strategic alternatives available to us with a view to enhancing stockholder value and had engaged Lazard Freres & Co. LLC as its financial advisor to assist the Board in evaluating strategic alternatives. There can be no assurance that the evaluation of potential strategic alternatives will result in either pursuing any different strategic operational approach or completing any particular transaction. We also may not accurately assess the risks and uncertainties associated with engaging in a strategic alternative, and the anticipated benefits from pursuing any such alternative may not materialize. In addition, undertaking a strategic process could divert management’s time and focus from operating our business, potentially having adverse effects on our existing business relationships and our key employees.

We may not be able to effectively manage our employees and distribution network, and our reputation, business, prospects and brand may be materially and adversely affected by actions taken by our distributors and third-party marketing firms.

Our company policies prohibit our employees from making improper payments to hospitals or otherwise engaging in improper activities to influence the procurement decisions of hospitals, and we take remedial actions, including termination, when employees do not adhere to our policies. However, we may not be able to effectively ensure that every employee complies at all times with our policies. The compensation of our sales and marketing personnel is partially linked to their sales performance. Although we have made numerous changes to ensure compliance with our policies and to attempt to avoid any violation of law, we cannot assure you that employees will not violate the anticorruption laws of China, the US and other countries. Such violations, or allegations of such violations, could have a material adverse effect on our reputation, business, prospects and brand.

Furthermore, we have identified from time to time certain instances of improperly submitted expense reporting by our employees. Our employees may seek to create additional opportunities to engage in misappropriation or other employee malfeasance. If our controls and procedures to prevent such activities fail or are circumvented, our business would be negatively affected by, among other things, the related financial losses, diminished reputation and threat of litigation and regulatory inquiry and investigation.

We do not control, and therefore have limited ability to manage, the activities of third-parties who assist us in marketing and distributing our products. Our distributors or other third parties with whom we do business could take actions which violate the anti-corruption laws of China, the US or other countries. Failure to adequately manage our employees, and third parties and, or their non-compliance with employment, distribution or marketing agreements, could harm our corporate image among hospitals and end users

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of our products and disrupt our sales, resulting in a failure to meet our sales goals. Furthermore, we could be liable for actions taken by our employees, distributors or third-party marketing or third-party firms, including any violations of applicable law in connection with the marketing or sale of our products, including China’s anticorruption laws and the FCPA of the US. In particular, if our employees, distributors or third-party marketing firms make any payments that are forbidden under China’s anticorruption laws or the FCPA, we could be subject to civil and criminal penalties imposed by the Chinese or US government.

Recently, the Chinese government has increased its anti-corruption measures. In the pharmaceutical industry, corrupt practices include, among others, acceptance of kickbacks, bribes or other illegal gains or benefits by the hospitals and medical practitioners from pharmaceutical manufacturers and distributors in connection with the prescription of certain pharmaceuticals. Our employees, affiliates, distributors or third-party marketing firms may violate these laws or otherwise engage in illegal practices with respect to their sales or marketing of our products or other activities involving our products. If our employees, affiliates, distributors or third-party marketing firms violate these laws, or are alleged to have violated these laws, we could be required to pay damages or fines, be subject to administrative actions or suffer additional consequences which could materially and adversely affect our ability to conduct business in China and our financial condition. In addition, Chinese laws regarding what types of payments to promote or sell our products are impermissible are not always clear, and local regulatory authorities enforcing these laws are not always consistent. As a result, we, our employees, affiliates, our distributors or third-party marketing firms could make certain payments in connection with the promotion or sale of our products or other activities involving our products which at the time are considered by us or them to be legal but are later deemed impermissible by the Chinese government, or we may be asked to make payments by local government authorities that may not be permissible under China’s anticorruption laws or the FCPA. Furthermore, our brand and reputation, our sales activities or the price of our common stock could be adversely affected if we become the target of any negative publicity as a result of actions taken by our employees, affiliates, distributors or third-party marketing firms.

Our independent registered public accounting firm serving as our external auditor is an audit firm which is not inspected by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”), and, although they may be subject to other inspections, you do not have the benefits of PCAOB inspections.

Our incumbent independent auditors’ system of quality control and their individual audits are subject to review, inspection, or other outside assurance from time to time by member firms in the network of firms to which they belong, by peer accounting firms, or by regulatory or industry bodies in China (such as China’s securities regulator or the Chinese body representing certified public accountants). However, these various bodies or parties are distinct from the PCAOB, and their efforts may not be concentrated on audits of SEC registrants. Their reviews or inspections may be substantially different, or not comparable to, an inspection by the PCAOB. Auditors of companies that are registered with the SEC and traded publicly in the US, including our independent registered public accounting firm, must be registered with the PCAOB, and are required by the laws of the US to undergo regular inspections by the PCAOB to assess their compliance with the laws of the US and professional standards. Because our auditors are located in the People’s Republic of China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB is currently unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditors are not currently inspected by the PCAOB. This lack of PCAOB inspections in China prevents the PCAOB from regularly evaluating audits and quality control procedures of any auditors operating in China, including our auditors. As a result, investors in our equity securities may be deprived of the benefits of PCAOB inspections. The inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections of auditors in China makes it more difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of our auditors’ audit procedures or quality control procedures as compared to other public company auditors outside of China that are subject to PCAOB inspections. As a result, investors in our stock may lose confidence in our reported financial information and procedures and the quality of our financial statements.

Proceedings instituted by the SEC against certain PRC-based accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

In December 2012, the SEC brought administrative proceedings against five accounting firms, including our independent registered public accounting firm, in China, alleging that they had refused to produce audit work papers and other documents related to certain other China-based related companies under investigation by the SEC. On January 22, 2014, an initial administrative law decision was issued, censuring these accounting firms and suspending four of these firms from practicing before the SEC for a period of six months. The decision is neither final nor legally effective unless and until reviewed and approved by the SEC. On February 12, 2014, four of these PRC-based accounting firms, including our registered public accounting firm, appealed to the SEC against this sanction decision. In February 2015, the four PRC-based accounting firms agreed to a censure and to pay $500,000 each to the SEC to settle the dispute and avoid suspension of their ability to prac tice before the SEC and audit US - listed companies. The settlement

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requires the firms to follow detailed procedures to seek to provide the SEC with access to Chinese firms’ audit documents via the China Securities Regulatory Commission. If the firms don’t follow the procedures, the SEC could impose penalties such as suspensions, or it could restart the current enforcement case administrative proceedings.

In the event that the SEC restarts the enforcement administrative proceedings, depending upon the final outcome, listed companies in the US with major PRC operations may find it difficult or impossible to retain auditors in respect of their operations in the PRC, which could result in financial statements being determined to not be in compliance with the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. Moreover, any negative news about the proceedings against these audit firms may cause investor uncertainty regarding China-based, US-listed companies and the market price of our stock may be adversely affected.

If our independent registered public accounting firm were denied the ability to practice before the SEC and we were unable to timely find another registered public accounting firm to audit and issue an opinion on our financial statements, our financial statements could be determined not to be in compliance with the requirements of the Exchange Act of 1934. Such a determination could ultimately lead to the delisting of our shares from the Nasdaq Global Select Market or deregistration by the SEC, or both, which would substantially reduce or effectively terminate the trading of our stock in the US.

Our compliance with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act may put us at a competitive disadvantage, while our failure to comply with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act may result in substantial penalties.

As a US reporting company, we are required to comply with the FCPA. If our employees or other agents are found to have engaged in practices in violation of the FCPA, we could suffer severe penalties. Non-US companies, including some of our competitors, are not subject to the provisions of the FCPA. Corruption, extortion, bribery, pay-offs, theft and other fraudulent practices occur from time to time in mainland China. If our competitors engage in these practices, they may receive preferential treatment from personnel of some companies, giving our competitors an advantage in securing business or from government officials who might give them priority in their business dealings, which would put us at a disadvantage.

Retaliation from terminated employees may damage our reputation or lead to claims that could subject us to further regulatory action.

From time to time we have terminated the employment of certain employees for performance-related reasons, including, in particular, our policies intended to prevent corruption. Employees who are terminated may seek more favorable terms of separation by threatening to damage our reputation in the marketplace. Further, they may seek to retaliate against us by making so-called “whistleblower” claims under the provisions enacted by the Dodd-Frank Act that may entitle persons who report alleged wrong-doing to the SEC to cash rewards. We anticipate that these provisions will result in a significant increase in whistleblower claims across our industry, and dealing with such claims could generate significant expenses and take up significant management time, even for frivolous and non-meritorious claims. Any investigations of whistleblower claims may impose additional expense on us, may require the attention of senior management and members of the Board of Directors and may result in fines, adverse administrative sanctions or rulings and/or reputational damage whether or not we are deemed to have violated any regulations. Furthermore, terminated employees may also seek to retaliate against us by making claims against us to other regulatory agencies, including local regulatory authorities. Inquiries by local regulatory agencies about such claims, even if frivolous and non-meritorious, could also generate significant expenses and take up significant management and Board of Directors’ time.

We may incur unexpected charges relating to our operations.

Although we have generally experienced minimal product returns and our customers have historically paid all invoiced amounts, we could incur future charges relating to inventory that expires or as a result of customer failures to pay invoiced amounts timely or in full. For example, we recorded $0.5 million of bad debt expense in general and administrative expense for the first quarter of 2015 related to one customer whose accounts receivable are uncertain of collection. In addition, we recorded $2.4 million to bad debt expense for the year ended December 31, 2013 related to one customer whose accounts receivable were significantly past due and for which collectability was uncertain at that time. Although we subsequently collected $1.5 million of these receivables in fiscal 2014 and a further $0.4 million in the second quarter of 2015, there still remains $0.5 million awaiting collection that is fully reserved. We also recorded charges of $2.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2014 for potential inventory obsolescence related to Aggrastat. We have had and could also experience additional charges for potential inventory obsolescence related to other products if we are unable to sell units that are nearing their expiration dates, or for bad debt if other distributors do not pay outstanding receivables in full. Those or similar future events would have an adverse impact upon our operating results. 

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We are at risk of additional securities class action and derivative lawsuits.

Securities class action and derivative lawsuits are often filed against public companies following a decline in the market price of their securities. After our announcement regarding SEC and DOJ investigations in 2010, we and certain of our officers and directors were named as parties in purported stockholder class actions and derivative lawsuits. Those class action lawsuits were dismissed and we have settled those derivative lawsuits. Our stock price declined following the announcement of a restatement of our financial statements for fiscal 2011 and the first three quarters of fiscal 2012, and that our predecessor independent auditing firm had elected not to stand for reappointment for the 2013 fiscal year. Soon after that announcement, we and certain of our officers and directors were named as parties in a purported derivative lawsuit relating to the restatement, which was subsequently dismissed in its entirety. We may experience stock price volatility in the future related to other matters. This risk is especially relevant for us because biotechnology companies have experienced greater than average stock price volatility in recent years. We may be named in additional litigation, which could require significant management time and attention and result in significant legal expenses and may result in an unfavorable outcome, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Such litigation could result in additional substantial costs and a diversion of management's and the Board of Directors’ attention and resources, which could harm our business.

We may not be able to successfully develop or commercialize our products.

We have numerous products under development in China, some of which were acquired in the NovaMed acquisition and others which were in-licensed by us. In recent years, we have in-licensed several additional product candidates for each of which our future development expenses and milestone payments could be material.

Clinical trials are inherently risky and may reveal that our product candidates are ineffective or have unanticipated side effects and/or drug interactions that may significantly decrease the likelihood of regulatory approval. For example, in March 2012, we announced the discontinuation of our phase 2b clinical trial evaluating SCV-07 for the delayed onset of oral mucositis. This decision was based on the results of a pre-planned interim analysis that indicated that the trial would not meet the pre-specified efficacy endpoints, and we have no plans to proceed with further development of SCV-07 at this time.

The regulatory approval processes in the US, Europe and China are demanding, lengthy and expensive. We have committed significant resources, including capital and time, to develop and seek approval for products under development, and if we do not obtain approvals we are seeking, we may be unable to achieve any revenue from these products. All new drugs, including our product candidates, are subject to extensive and rigorous regulation by the FDA, CFDA and similar regulatory agencies. These regulations govern, among other things, the development, testing, manufacturing, labeling, storage, pre-market approval, importation, advertising, promotion, sale and distribution of our products. These regulations may change from time to time and new regulations may be adopted.

Satisfaction of government regulations may take several years and the time needed to satisfy them varies substantially based on the type, complexity and novelty of the pharmaceutical product. As a result, government regulation may cause us to delay the introduction of, or prevent us from marketing, our existing or potential products for a considerable period of time and impose costly procedures on our activities. We have experienced delays in the regulatory process, and there exists risk that we may not receive approval of in-licensed products currently in the regulatory process. In addition, the Chinese government is increasing its efforts to reduce overall health care costs, including pricing controls on pharmaceutical products. We cannot determine what the potential government pricing constraints are likely to be for products in development in advance. Therefore, we may be required to abandon the development or commercialization of a product after significant effort and expense if we determine at any time that trends in government pricing constraints will make the commercialization of a product unprofitable.

To fully develop these products and other products we may acquire, substantial resources are required for extensive research, development, pre-clinical testing, clinical trials, and manufacturing scale-up and regulatory approval prior to the potential products being ready for sale. We cannot assure that our efforts will produce commercially viable products. We face significant technological risks inherent in developing these products. We may also abandon some or all of our proposed products before they become commercially viable. We are obligated to make a milestone payment upon regulatory approval of certain products under development. If any of our products, even if developed and approved, cannot be successfully commercialized in a timely manner, our business will be harmed and the price of our stock may decline.

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Market acceptance of any product that is successfully developed and approved will depend on many factors, including our ability to convince prospective customers to use our products as an alternative to other treatments and therapies. In addition, doctors must opt to use treatments involving our products. If doctors elect to use a different course of treatment, demand for our drug products would be reduced. In addition, for certain products we may need to convince partners to manufacture or market our products. Failure to do any of the above will lead to an unfavorable outcome on the results of our operations.

Our sales are concentrated in China and we face risks relating to operating in China, including risks due to changes in the regulatory environment, slow payment cycles and exposure to fluctuations in the Chinese economy.

A significant portion of our revenue and profit is derived from operations in China. Consequently, our overall financial results are dependent on this market, and our business is exposed to risks there. In addition to the risks relating to pricing previously discussed above, these risks also include changes in economic conditions (including wage and cost inflation, currency exchange rates, consumer spending and employment levels), tax rates, laws, changes in the regulatory environment, increased competition and potential noncompliance with local laws and regulations. Risks also include changing consumer product preferences and preferred sales channels, as well as our ability to accommodate such changing preferences. Certain risks and uncertainties of doing business in China are solely within the control of the Chinese government, and Chinese law regulates the scope of our foreign investments and business conducted within China. Any significant or prolonged deterioration in China’s relations with the United States and other countries could adversely affect our China business. There are also uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of laws and regulations and the enforceability of intellectual property and contract rights in China. There can be no assurance as to the future effect of any such risks and uncertainties on our results of operations, financial condition or cash flows.

In addition to the risk relating to pricing regulations and other risks related to operating in China, as discussed above, w e experience other issues with managing sales operations in China including long payment cycles, potential difficulties in timely accounts receivable collection and, especially from significant customers, fluctuations in the timing and amount of orders and the adverse effect of any of these issues on our business could be increased due to the concentration of our business with a small number of distributors. Problems with collections from, or sales to, any one of those distributors could materially adversely affect our results. Operations in foreign countries including China also expose us to risks relating to difficulties in enforcing our proprietary rights, currency fluctuations and adverse or deteriorating economic conditions. If we experience problems with these matters, or if significant regulatory limitations are imposed on our ability to terminate employees and on the related costs, political, economic or regulatory changes occur, our results could be adversely affected. During the third quarter of 2014, we wrote-off $1.1 million of $3.5 million in fully reserved accounts receivable related to one customer. For that customer, we received $1.5 million in payments on fully reserved accounts receivable in 2014 and a further $0.4 million in the second quarter of 2015, and the remaining fully reserved accounts receivable balance of $0.5 million as of December 31, 2015 is substantially delinquent. Although we entered into a settlement agreement with this customer in Oc tober 2014, and the customer had a binding obligation to pay us the remaining $0.5 million by December 31, 2015 ,   we did not receive the payment as of December 31, 2015 and there can be no assurance if we are not paid and we pursue legal action what the timing or result of such action would be.  

Our operations throughout the world including China are potentially subject to the laws and regulations of the US including the FCPA, in addition to the laws and regulations of the other countries. Regulation in China of the activities in the pharmaceutical industry has increased and may continue to undergo significant and unanticipated changes. A number of companies have faced significant expenses or fines as a result of the increasing regulation of, and enforcement activity regarding, the pharmaceutical industry . The Chinese government has recently made arrests of pharmaceutical company employees for allegedly illegal sales and marketing activities. Recent or future arrests of sales personnel, doctors or others in the pharmaceutical industry, whether or not the individuals violated laws or regulations, could impact the operations and results of pharmaceutical companies in China, including our own.   The Chinese government has also been investigating the costs to manufacture approximately 40 pharmaceutical products sold in China. While SciClone was not involved in either of these actions, these actions may be an indication of heightened Chinese government oversight of the pharmaceutical industry, and of multinational pharmaceutical companies in particular. Such activities could have long-term implications for the pharmaceutical industry in China including increased pricing pressure and a heightened level of government oversight and investigations, either of which could adversely affect the industry as a whole or individual companies, including SciClone.

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Our business is sensitive to the economy in China. A downturn in the Chinese economy could materially and adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.

Any slowdown in China’s economic development might lead to tighter credit markets, increased market volatility, sudden drops in business and consumer confidence and dramatic changes in business and consumer behaviors. Economic growth rates in China are slowing and there has been significant volatility in the stock indexes within China. The Chinese government is believed to take an active role in influencing stock indexes and in many other areas, but there is no assurance that growth rates will not continue to decline. Slowing growth in China, stock market volatility and uncertainty in economic conditions, may cause a decline in sales of ZADAXIN or negatively impact our other products. A decline is demand for our products in China could materially and adversely affect our revenues and results of operations.

The Company could be subject to changes in its t ax rates, the adoption of new US or international tax legislation or exposure to additional tax liabilities which could have a negative impact on our financial position and results of operations .

Currently all of our revenue is generated from customers located outside the US, and a substantial portion of our assets, including employees, are located outside the US. US income taxes and foreign withholding taxes have not been provided on undistributed earnings of non-US subsidiaries, because such earnings are intended to be indefinitely reinvested in the operations of those subsidiaries. The US government may propose initiatives that would substantially reduce our ability to defer US taxes including: repealing deferral of US taxation of foreign earnings, eliminating utilization or substantially reducing our ability to claim foreign tax credits, and eliminating various tax deductions until foreign earnings are repatriated to the US. If any of these proposals are constituted into legislation, they could increase our US income tax liability and as a result have a negative impact on our financial position and results of operations.

Chinese healthcare regulation and the Chinese market are changing rapidly and we may modify our strategy in response to those changes and we cannot assure you that we will be successful in implementing changes.

The Chinese healthcare and regulatory environment have changed and are likely to continue to change in response to Chinese government policies and other factors. We intend to evaluate and make modifications to our strategy in response to these changes. We intend to continue our strategies of growing business in China by expanding ZADAXIN sales, entering into new promotional agreements, and seeking of products that have been approved outside China, but we may implement additional strategies, including expanding our capabilities in China to develop earlier stage products in-licensed from third parties in China or elsewhere. If we make significant additions or changes to our strategy, we may not be successful in implementing such changes, or the Chinese market may change in unexpected directions to which we are not able to respond timely.

We may lose market share or otherwise fail to compete effectively in the intensely competitive pharmaceutical industry.

Competition in the pharmaceutical industry in China is intense, and we believe that competition will increase. Our success depends on our ability to compete in this industry, but we cannot assure you that we will be able to successfully compete with our competitors. Increased competitive pressure could lead to intensified price-based competition resulting in lower prices and margins, which would hurt our operating results. We cannot assure you that we will compete successfully against our competitors or that our competitors, or potential competitors, will not develop drugs or other treatments for our targeted indications that will be superior to ours.

We depend on sales to China, and global conditions could negatively affect our operating results or limit our ability to expand our operations in and outside of China. Changes in China’s political, social, regulatory and economic environment may affect our financial performance.

Our business is concentrated in China. Heightened tensions resulting from the current geopolitical conditions in the Middle East, North Korea and elsewhere could worsen, causing disruptions in foreign trade, which would harm our sales. In particular, our commercial product is manufactured in Europe and distributed by us from our operations in Hong Kong. Any disruption of our supply and distribution activities due to geopolitical conditions could decrease our sales and harm our operating results. In addition, while we continue our efforts to expand our operations in and outside of China, disruptions in our marketing or distribution efforts could delay or limit our ability to expand. We have had distributors with whom our accounts receivable collectability has become uncertain where, in addition to the charges that may result from the collectability of the accounts receivable, we may experience delays in our efforts to expand our operations and lose business to our competitors from any resulting disruption.

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With respect to China, our financial performance may be affected by changes in China’s political, social, regulatory and economic environment. The role of the Chinese central and local governments in the Chinese economy is significant. Chinese policies toward economic liberalization, and laws and policies affecting foreign companies, currency exchange rates and other matters could change, resulting in greater restrictions on our ability to do business in China. Any imposition of surcharges or any increase in Chinese tax rates could hurt our operating results. The Chinese government could revoke, terminate or suspend our license for national security and similar reasons or in the event our employees, affiliates, distributors or third-party marketing firms violate Chinese anticorruption laws, or are alleged to have violated these laws, without compensation to us. If the government of China were to take any of these actions, we would be prevented from conducting all or part of our business. Any failure on our part to comply with governmental regulations could result in the loss of our ability to market our products in China.

Because of China's tiered method of importing and distributing finished pharmaceutical products, our quarterly results may vary substantially from one period to the next; we are dependent upon Sinopharm as the exclusive importer of ZADAXIN.

Imported products in China, including ZADAXIN and NovaMed’s imported products, are distributed through a tiered method to import and distribute finished pharmaceutical products. Promoted products are typically sold from our partner companies within China to the primary distributor with the following distribution being the same for imported as well as promoted products. At each port of entry, and prior to moving the product forward to the distributors, government-licensed importing agents must process and evaluate each imported product shipment to determine whether it satisfies China's quality assurance requirements. In order to efficiently manage this process, the importing agents typically place large, and therefore relatively few, orders within an annual period. Therefore, sales to an importing agent can vary substantially from quarter to quarter depending on the size and timing of the orders, which has in the past and may in the future cause our quarterly results to fluctuate. We rely on Sinopharm to supply our ZADAXIN sales. Our receivables from Sinopharm are material, and if we were unable to collect receivables from Sinopharm or any other importer, our business and cash-flow would be adversely affected. In 2012, we also relied on another distributor to supply our ZADAXIN product. Receivables from this importer are $0.5 million as of December 31 , 2015 that are more than one year past due and fully reserved, and if we were unable to collect these receivables, our business and cash flows would be adversely affected.

Generally, our importers are not obligated to place purchase orders for our product, and if they determined for any reason not to place purchase orders, we would need to seek alternative licensed importers, which could cause fluctuations in our revenue. As a result of our agreement granting certain exclusive importation rights to Sinopharm for ZADAXIN, we are dependent upon Sinopharm’s performance of its obligations under that agreement. We have a long-standing and, we believe excellent, relationship with Sinopharm; however, if Sinopharm were unable to adequately perform its obligations under, or breached, the agreement our business would be adversely affected.

The existence of counterfeit pharmaceutical products in China’s pharmaceutical retail market may damage our brand and reputation and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

Certain medicine products distributed or sold in China’s pharmaceutical retail market, including those appearing to be our products, may be counterfeit. Counterfeit products are products sold under the same or very similar brand names and/or have a similar appearance to genuine products. Counterfeit products, including counterfeit pharmaceutical products, are a significant problem in China and we have experienced counterfeiting of our products. Such counterfeit products divert sales from genuine products, often are of lower cost, often are of lower quality (having different ingredients or formulations, for example), and have the potential to damage the reputation for quality and effectiveness of the genuine product. The counterfeit pharmaceutical product regulation control and enforcement system in China is not able to completely eliminate production and sale of counterfeit pharmaceutical products. To increase our ability to prevent counterfeiting, we have taken several actions, including enhancements of our product labeling to implement industry-leading labeling technology and implementation of product tracking applications. However we cannot eliminate counterfeiting and, any sale of counterfeit products resulting in adverse side effects to consumers may subject us to negative publicity and expenses. It could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

We may be subject to currency exchange rate fluctuations, which could adversely affect our financial performance.

The majority of our sales have been in US dollars, although a portion of our sales are denominated in RMB. Per our previous contractual arrangement with Sinopharm through December 31, 2015, and a renewed contractual arrangement with Sinopharm (our sole importer and distributor for ZADAXIN in China) which took effect January 1, 2016, our sales of ZADAXIN to Sinopharm have been and continue to be denominated in US dollars. However, the established importer price may be adjusted quarterly based upon

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exchange rate fluctuations between the US dollar and RMB. In recent months the RMB has experienced devaluation ; accordingly, our importer price has been and can continue to be adjusted downward as denominated in US dollars .   Our purchases with contract manufacturers are denominated in US dollars and euros and costs of our marketing efforts in China are paid in local currency. In addition, we have certain cash balances and other assets and liabilities denominated in euros, RMB   and Hong Kong dollars.   Fluctuation in the US dollar exchange rate with local currency directly affects the customer's cost for our product. In particular, a stronger US dollar vis-à-vis the local currency would tend to have an adverse effect on sales and potentially on collection of accounts receivable. China currently maintains the value of the RMB in a narrow currency trading band that may or may not fluctuate based on government policy. For example, in August 2015, the Chinese government devalued the RMB and may further devalue the RMB at any time. This devaluation has resulted in the strengthening of the US dollar and may reflect a weakening of the Chinese economy. Depending on market conditions and the state of the Chinese economy, China has intervened in the foreign exchange market in the past to prevent significant short-term fluctuations in the RMB exchange rate, and it could make future adjustments, including moving to a managed float system, with opportunistic interventions. This reserve diversification may negatively impact the US dollar and US interest rates. A trend to a stronger US dollar would erode margins earned by our Chinese importers and prompt them to ask us to lower our prices. A weaker US dollar would increase our in-country China operating expenses, and with the addition of NovaMed, our China operating expenses have increased. We are subject to currency exchange rate fluctuations as a result of expenses incurred by our foreign operations. In particular, one of our supply arrangements under which we purchase finished products is denominated in euros and costs of our operations in China are paid in local currency. Consequently, changes in exchange rates could unpredictably and adversely affect our operating results and could result in exchange losses. To date, we have not hedged against the risks associated with fluctuations in exchange rates and, therefore, exchange rate fluctuations could have a material adverse impact on our future operating results and stock price.

We cannot predict the safety profile of the use of ZADAXIN or other drugs we may develop or market particularly when used in combination with other drugs.

While ZADAXIN has an excellent safety profile, we cannot predict whether ZADAXIN or any product we market may have unexpected safety issues in a particular patient population or when used in new indications. In addition, we cannot predict how ZADAXIN or other drugs we may develop or market will work with other drugs, including causing possible adverse side effects not directly attributable to the other drugs that could compromise the safety profile of ZADAXIN or other drugs we may develop or market when used in certain combination therapies. We are exploring new indications for ZADAXIN and there is a risk that new safety issues could appear in these new patient populations.

As we introduce new products, such as DC Bead, to the market in China, there may be adverse safety events related to those products. Adverse safety events may have a negative impact on our business. Discovery of safety issues with our products could create product liability and could cause additional regulatory scrutiny and requirements for additional labeling, withdrawal of products from the market, and the imposition of fines or criminal penalties. Adverse safety events may also damage physician and patient confidence in our products and our reputation. Any of these could result in liabilities, loss of revenue, material write-offs of inventory, material impairments of goodwill and fixed assets, material restructuring charges and other adverse impacts on our results of operations.

Regulatory authorities are making greater amounts of stand-alone safety information directly available to the public through periodic safety update reports, patient registries and other reporting requirements. The reporting of adverse safety events involving our products or products similar to ours and public rumors about such events may increase claims against us and may also cause our product sales or stock price to decline or experience periods of volatility.

If third-party reimbursement is not available or patients cannot otherwise pay for ZADAXIN or other drugs we may develop, we may not be able to successfully market them.

Significant uncertainty exists as to the reimbursement status of therapeutic products, such as ZADAXIN or other drugs we may develop. We cannot assure you that third-party insurance coverage and reimbursement will be available for therapeutic products we might develop. Although ZADAXIN receives some limited reimbursement in certain provinces in China, we cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain existing reimbursements or increase third-party payments for ZADAXIN or obtain third-party payments for other products that we sell or develop in China. The failure to obtain or maintain third-party reimbursement for our products would harm our business. Further, we cannot assure you that additional limitations will not be imposed in the future in the US or elsewhere on drug coverage and reimbursement due to proposed health care reforms. In many emerging markets where we have marketing rights to ZADAXIN, but where government resources and per capita income may be so low that our products will be prohibitively expensive, we may not be able to market our products on economically favorable terms, if at all.

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Recent efforts by governmental and third-party payers to contain or reduce health care costs and the announcement of legislative proposals and reforms to implement government controls has caused us to reduce the prices at which we market our drugs in China, and additional reforms, if they were to occur, could cause us to further reduce our prices which could reduce our gross margins and may harm our business.

We rely on third parties who are our sole source suppliers for our clinical trial and commercial products and their inability to deliver products that meet our quality-control standards could delay or harm one or more important areas of our business including our sales, clinical trials or the regulatory approval process.

We rely on third parties, who are subject to regulatory oversight, to supply our commercial products. Any deficiencies or shortages in supply of our commercial products would adversely affect our ability to realize our sales plans. For example, the manufacturing of the raw material and the processing to finished product of ZADAXIN is done in few batches in any given three-month period and any manufacturing errors have the potential to require a product recall. We currently have only one approved finished vial manufacturer and two approved active pharmaceutical ingredient (“API”) suppliers. If we experience a problem with the manufacturer or our suppliers, our sales may suffer. We have each experienced difficulties with obtaining product from manufacturers in the past. During 2012, we experienced limitations on supply of several products we were promoting (each of which we no longer market) and the growth in the sales of those products was affected. During 2011, we experienced manufacturing delays related to repairs for general, non-production-related facilities equipment at one of our API suppliers. During 2010, we experienced difficulties validating upgrades to equipment with one of our API manufacturers. Although we are taking steps to ensure that such problems do not continue, there is no assurance that we will either be successful in doing so with our current supplier or be able to timely and cost-effectively qualify new suppliers for this component. Manufacturing interruptions or failure or delay of product to meet quality assurance specifications could adversely affect shipments and recognition of sales of our products in any period and impair our relationships with customers and our competitive position and may increase the cost of material produced. In addition, each of the products that are marketed through our NovaMed subsidiary is manufactured by, or obtained from, a single source.

We also rely on third parties, who are subject to regulatory oversight, to supply drug product. For example, ONXEO (formerly BioAlliance) is the sole supplier of Loramyc .   Any unanticipated deficiencies in this supplier, or the suppliers of our raw materials, and/or recall of the manufacturing lots could also impede commercialization of our products and impair our competitive position. In addition, any unanticipated deficiencies in suppliers used in our clinical trials could delay the trials or detract from the integrity of the trial data and its potential use in future regulatory filings. In addition, manufacturing interruptions or failure to comply with regulatory requirements by any of these suppliers could significantly delay clinical development of potential products and reduce third-party or clinical researcher interest and support of proposed trials.

If our thymalfasin API or ZADAXIN products are not shipped and stored at precision temperatures, the products could become damaged, which could negatively affect our sales and operating results.

Thymalfasin API and ZADAXIN are temperature sensitive products. SciClone relies on third-party organizations to provide controlled temperature shipping logistics services from the point of ownership transfer from the API contract manufacturer to the point where thymalfasin API is converted to ZADAXIN drug product, and from the ZADAXIN drug product manufacturing site to our storage locations in Hong Kong and then to China. Although some temperature excursions are allowable and thymalfasin and ZADAXIN are relatively stable when exposed to temperatures higher than recommended, if any third-party logistics or equipment provider fails to perform their required oversight duties with respect to temperature control or a shipment is delayed in transit for a prolonged period of time, the thymalfasin API or ZADAXIN drug product could become unsuitable for subsequent processing or commercial use. Although we have not experienced cold chain interruptions in the past and our distributor in China may maintain several months supply of our product, were our cold chain distribution or warehouse capability to be interrupted, our ability to timely deliver finished product to China could be adversely affected, which in turn could materially adversely affect our sales and operating results.

We rely on third parties for development of our products and the inability of any of these parties to reliably, timely or cost-effectively provide us with their obligated services could materially harm the timing of bringing our products to market and accordingly adversely affect our business.  

We rely on third parties, such as contract research organizations, medical institutions, clinical investigators, contract laboratories, and collaborative partners in the conduct of clinical trials for our product candidates. If these parties, whom we do not control, do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or regulatory obligations or meet expected deadlines or choose not to continue their

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relationship with us, if the third parties need to be replaced, or if the quality or accuracy of the data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements or for other reasons, our pre-clinical or clinical activities may be extended, delayed, suspended or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize our product candidates. 

Commercialization of some of our products depends on collaborations with others. If our collaborators are not successful, or if we are unable to find future collaborators, we may not be able to properly develop and commercialize our products.

We depend in part on our distributors and business partners to develop or promote our drugs, and if they are not successful in their efforts or fail to do so, our business will suffer. We generally do not have control over the amount and timing of resources that our business partners devote to our collaborative efforts, and some have not always performed as or when expected. If they do not perform their obligations as we expect, particularly obligations regarding clinical trials, our development expenses would increase and the development or sale of our products could be limited or delayed, which could hurt our business and cause our stock price to decline. In addition, our relationships with these companies may not be successful. Disputes may arise with our collaborators, including disputes over ownership rights to intellectual property, know-how or technologies developed with our collaborators. We may not be able to negotiate similar additional arrangements in the future to develop and commercialize ZADAXIN or other products.

If we are unable to retain our key personnel, or are unable to attract and retain additional, highly skilled and experienced personnel, including the ability to expand our sales staff, our business will suffer.

We are highly dependent upon our ability to attract and retain qualified personnel because of the specialized, scientific and worldwide nature of our business. We are also dependent on our ability to appropriately staff these personnel in appropriate positions as our business fluctuates. Further, our efforts to in-license or acquire, develop and commercialize product candidates for China may require the addition of clinical and regulatory personnel and the expansion of, or changes in our sales and marketing operation. In addition, we assign numerous key responsibilities to a limited number of individuals, and we would experience difficulty in finding immediate replacements for any of them were any one of them to choose to leave employment with us. There is intense competition for qualified management, scientific, clinical, regulatory, and sales and marketing personnel in the pharmaceutical industry.

There is significant turnover in the industry, in China in particular, and we have also experienced turnover in our sales personnel and key employees. We may not be able to attract and retain the qualified personnel we need to grow and develop our business globally. 

We have terminated personnel for violations of our policies and procedures as well as for lack of performance. Our future success will depend in part on our retaining key personnel and on recruiting additional senior sales and other personnel in China. We are continuously recruiting executives and other level personnel to address departures and to expand and strengthen our China operations.

Conversely, if we need to reduce the size of a particular aspect of our business, including if we have contracts that are not renewed or renegotiated for products we market or promote, we are also dependent on our ability to make such adjustments while retaining suitably skilled personnel. For example, we reduced the size of our sales force as a result of the expiration of our agreement with Sanofi at the end of 2013. In addition, we have taken corrective measures based on the findings of our Special Committee relating to its investigation of matters relating to the FCPA and have taken, and expect to continue to take, corrective measures relating to managements’ evaluation of internal control over financial reporting which could have adverse effects on our business, including the loss of personnel, and changes in marketing, sales and educational practices or programs. If we were unable to attract and retain qualified personnel as needed or promptly replace those employees who are critical to our sales, development and other operations, and in particular senior executives, our financial results and operations would be adversely affected. At this time, we do not maintain “key person” life insurance for any of our personnel.

We may need to obtain additional funding to support our long-term product development , including funding of in-licensed products, and commercialization programs.

We believe our existing cash and cash equivalents and ongoing revenue generating business operations will be sufficient to support our current operating plan for at least the next 12 months. We  may use cash to acquire additional product rights or for future acquisitions.  Our   ability to achieve and sustain operating profitability is dependent on numerous factors including our ability to achi eve increasing sales of ZADAXIN   and DC Bead in China, and for our other products including those products we acquired as a result of the NovaMed acquisition and the execution and successful completion of clinical trials in China. Further, we may use cash to

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fund products we in-license. We cannot assure you that such funds from operating activities will be sufficient, or that we will attain profitable operations in future periods. In addition, we intend to develop other products and we may need additional funds in the future to support such development and to support future growth and achieve profitability. If we need to raise additional funds in the future and such funds are not available on reasonable terms, if at all, our commercialization efforts may be impeded, our revenues may be limited and our operating results may suffer.  

We are subject to the risk of increased income taxes which could reduce our future operating income.  

We have structured our operations in a manner designed to maximize income in countries where:

·

tax incentives have been extended to encourage foreign investment; or

·

income tax rates are low.

Our taxes could increase if certain tax holidays or incentives are not renewed upon expiration, or if tax rates applicable to us in such jurisdictions are otherwise increased. For example, on March 16, 2007, the Chinese government passed a unified enterprise income tax law which became effective on January 1, 2008. Among other things, the law cancels many income tax incentives previously applicable to one of our subsidiaries in China. The law provides a transition rule which increased the tax rate of one of our subsidiaries in China over a 5-year period to 25% by 2012. The law also increased the standard withholding rate on earnings distributions to between 5% and 10% depending on the residence of the shareholder. The ultimate effect of these and other changes in Chinese tax laws on our overall tax rate will be affected by, among other things, our China income, the manner in which China interprets, implements and applies the new tax provisions, and by our ability to qualify for any exceptions or new incentives.

In addition, the Company and its subsidiaries are regularly subject to tax return audits and examinations by various taxing jurisdictions, particularly in the US and China. In determining the adequacy of our provision for income taxes, we regularly assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from tax examinations. While it is often difficult to predict the final outcome or the timing of the resolution of a tax examination, we believe that our reserves for uncertain tax positions reflect the outcome of tax positions that are more likely than not to occur. However, we cannot be certain that the final determination of any tax examinations will not be materially different than that which is reflected in our income tax provisions and accruals. Should additional taxes be assessed as a result of a current or future examination, there could be a material adverse effect on our tax provision, operating results, financial position and cash flows in the period or periods for which that determination is made.

If we fail to protect our products, technologies and trade secrets, we may not be able to successfully use, manufacture, market or sell our products, or we may fail to advance or maintain our competitive position, and we have limited intellectual property protection in China.

Our success depends significantly on our ability to obtain and maintain meaningful patent protection for our products and technologies and to preserve our trade secrets. Our pending patent applications may not result in the issuance of patents in the future. Our patents or patent applications may not have priority over others' applications. Our existing patents and additional patents that may be issued, if any, may not provide a competitive advantage to us or may be invalidated or circumvented by our competitors. Others may independently develop similar products or design around patents issued or licensed to us. Patents issued to, or patent applications filed by, other companies could harm our ability to use, manufacture, market or sell our products or maintain our competitive position with respect to our products. Although many of our patents relating to thymalfasin have expired, including composition of matter patents, we have rights to other patents and patent applications relating to thymalfasin and thymalfasin analogues, including method of use patents with respect to the use of thymalfasin for certain indications. Additionally, thymalfasin has received Orphan Drug designation in the US for the treatment of stage 2b through stage 4 melanoma, for the treatment of chronic active hepatitis B, for the treatment of DiGeorge anomaly with immune defects, and for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. If other parties develop generic forms of thymalfasin for other indications, including conducting clinical trials for such indications, our patents and other rights might not be sufficient to prohibit them from marketing and selling such generic forms of thymalfasin or their brands of thymalfasin. If other parties develop analogues or derivatives of thymalfasin, our patents and other rights might not be sufficient to prohibit them from marketing these analogues or derivatives.

Pharmaceutical products are either not patentable or have only recently become patentable in some of the countries in which we market or may market thymalfasin. We do not have composition patent claims directed to the thymalfasin that is currently marketed in China, our largest market, although we do have other type of patent claims, pending or issued, directed to other aspects of thymalfasin therapy. Other companies market generic thymalfasin in China, potentially in violation of our patent, trademark or other rights which,

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to date, we have defended by informing physicians and hospitals of the practice. Past enforcement of intellectual property rights in many of these countries, including China in particular, has been limited or non-existent. Future enforcement of patents and proprietary rights in many other countries will likely be problematic or unpredictable. Moreover, the issuance of a patent in one country does not assure the issuance of a similar patent in another country. Claim interpretation and infringement laws vary by nation, so the extent of any patent protection is uncertain and may vary in different jurisdictions.

If we are involved in intellectual property claims and litigation, the proceedings may divert our resources and subject us to significant liability for damages, substantial litigation expense and the loss of our proprietary rights.

Our commercial success depends in part on our not infringing valid, enforceable patents or proprietary rights of third parties, and not breaching any licenses that may relate to our technologies and products. In addition, we may not be aware of all patents or patent applications that may impact our ability to make, use or sell any of our potential products. For example, US patent applications may be kept confidential for 12 or more months while pending in the Patent and Trademark Office, and patent applications filed in foreign countries are often first published nine months or more after filing. It is possible that we may unintentionally infringe these patents or other patents or proprietary rights of third parties. We may in the future receive notices claiming infringement from third parties as well as invitations to take licenses under third-party patents. Any legal action against us or our collaborative partners claiming damages and seeking to enjoin commercial activities relating to our products and processes affected by third-party rights may require us or our collaborative partners to obtain licenses in order to continue to manufacture or market the affected products and processes. Our efforts to defend against any of these claims, regardless of merit, would require us to devote resources and attention that could have been directed to our operations and growth plans. In addition, these actions may subject us to potential liability for damages. We or our collaborative partners may not prevail in a patent action and any license required under a patent may not be made available on commercially acceptable terms, or at all. Any conflicts resulting from the patent rights of others could significantly reduce the coverage of our patents and limit our ability to obtain meaningful patent protection.

If other companies obtain patents with conflicting claims, we may be required to obtain licenses to those patents or develop or obtain alternate technology to manufacture or market the affected products and processes. We may not be able to obtain any such licenses on acceptable terms or at all. Any failure to obtain such licenses could delay or prevent us from pursuing the development or commercialization of our potential products. Our efforts to defend against any of these claims would require us to devote resources and attention that could have been directed to our operations and growth plans.

We may need to initiate litigation, which could be time-consuming and expensive, to enforce our proprietary rights or to determine the scope and validity of others' rights. If litigation results, a court may find our patents or those of our licensors invalid or may find that we have infringed on a competitor's rights. If any of our competitors have filed patent applications in the US that claim technology we also have invented, the Patent and Trademark Office may require us to participate in expensive interference proceedings to determine who has the right to a patent for the technology. These actions may subject us to potential liability for damages. We or our collaborative partners may not prevail in a patent action and any license required under a patent may not be made available on commercially acceptable terms, or at all.

Substantial sales of our stock or the exercise or conversion of options may impact the market price of our common stock.

While we do not have any plans to issue common stock other than with respect to equity compensation, future issuances of substantial amounts of our common stock could adversely affect the market price of our common stock. Similarly, if we raise additional funds through the issuance of common stock or securities convertible into or exercisable for common stock or sell equity in a subsidiary, the percentage ownership of our present stockholders of the respective entities will be reduced and the price of our common stock may fall.

Our cash and cash equivalents are subject to certain risks which could materially adversely affect our overall financial position.  

We invest our cash and cash equivalents in accordance with an established internal policy and customarily in instruments which historically have been highly liquid and carried relatively low risk. However, with turmoil in the credit markets, similar types of investments have experienced losses in value or liquidity issues which differ from their historical pattern. For example, we routinely have invested in money market funds with large financial institutions. One or more of these funds could experience losses or liquidity problems and, although to date some of the largest financial institutions who sponsor such funds have offset similar losses, there is no assurance that our financial institutions would either not incur losses or would offset any losses were they to occur. 

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Any adjustment to decrease the ratings of our investments by a statistical rating organization (such as Moody’s or Standard and Poor’s) may have a negative impact on the value of our investments.

Should any of our cash investments permanently lose value or have their liquidity impaired, it would have a material and adverse effect on our overall financial position by imperiling our ability to fund our operations and forcing us to seek additional financing sooner than we would otherwise and such financing may not be available on commercially attractive terms.  

In addition, financial instruments may subject us to a concentration of credit risk. Most of our cash and cash equivalents are held by a limited number of financial institutions. To date, we have not experienced any losses on our deposits of cash and cash equivalents. However, if any of these instruments permanently lost value or have their liquidity impaired, it would also have a material and adverse effect on our overall financial position by imperiling our ability to fund our operations and forcing us to seek additional financing sooner than we would otherwise and such financing may not be available on commercially attractive terms.  

We expect that we may need to transfer capital to NovaMed Shanghai from time to time to fund its operations. We need to obtain regulatory approval from China’s State Administration of Foreign Exchange (“SAFE”) in order to make such transfers and there can be no assurance that we will be able to obtain such approval in a timely manner. We have been able to fund the operations of NovaMed Shanghai to date through commercial credit facilities or through intercompany loans, but we could face difficulties in the future if our efforts to improve profitability and cash flow in NovaMed Shanghai are not successful, or if we are unable to obtain SAFE approval or obtain further funding for NovaMed Shanghai .

Furthermore, a majority of our cash is held by our foreign subsidiaries. Such c ash is used to fund the operating activities of our foreign subsidiaries and for further investment in foreign operations . Based on our current operating plan, we do not anticipate the need to repatriate undistributed earnings of cash and cash equivalents held by our foreign subsidiaries accumulated through December 31, 2015, but we do anticipate a need to repatriate a portion of future foreign earnings to fund our US operations which will result in the need to accrue for US income taxes on those future foreign earnings that we anticipate repatriating from our foreign subsidiaries.

Our loans receivable are subject to certain risks which could materially adversely affect our financial position.  

As part of our May 2013 license and supply agreement with Zensun, we agreed to loan up to $12 million to Zensun, of which $12 million had been loaned as of December 31 , 2015. The proceeds of the loans are to be used   for working capital and general corporate purposes by Zensun. As security for the loan agreements, Zensun pledged its entire equity interest in its subsidiary Shanghai Dongxin Biochemical Technology Co. Ltd. (whose assets include real property) to us. If the real property which comprises the majority of the value of all of the assets pledged as security were to suffer a decrease in its value due to macroeconomic conditions or local market-specific factors impacting commercial real estate market values, such a fact may represent an indication of loan impairment. If these loans were to become impaired and the loans could not be collected, our financial position could be negatively impacted with a charge to operations for the amount of any unpaid principal and interest.

Our ability to utilize our tax attributes may be limited by an “ownership change”.  

Our ability to use our tax attributes, such as our US federal income tax net operating loss carryforwards and our tax credit carryforwards, may be substantially restricted if we have had in the past, or have in the future, an “ownership change” as defined in Section 382 of the US Internal Revenue Code. An ownership change occurs if increases in the percentage of our stock held by “5-percent shareholders” (within the meaning of Section 382, which provides that certain public groups can be treated as 5-percent shareholders) collectively exceed more than fifty percent, comparing the lowest percentage of stock owned by each 5-percent shareholder at any time during the testing period (which is generally a three-year rolling period) to the percentage of stock owned by the 5-percent shareholder immediately after the close of any owner shift testing date. Our repurchases of our Common Stock, issuances of any additional significant amounts of our Common Stock for future acquisitions or other transactions and trading in our stock by stockholders, may have increased the possibility that in the future we could experience an ownership change. T rading by our stockholders, stock repurchases or other transactions could, in the future, cause an ownership change, resulting in an annual limitation on utilization of our tax attributes. If our tax attribute usage is subject to limitation and if we are profitable, our future cash flows could be adversely affected due to an increased tax liability.

33

 


 

Anti-takeover provisions in our charter documents and under Delaware law may make an acquisition of us, which may be beneficial to our stockholders, more difficult.

Certain anti-takeover provisions of Delaware law and our charter documents as currently in effect may make a change in control of our company more difficult, even if a change in control would be beneficial to our stockholders. Our charter documents contain certain anti-takeover provisions, including provisions in our certificate of incorporation providing that stockholders may not cumulate votes, stockholders' meetings may be called by stockholders only if they hold 25% or more of our common stock and provisions in our bylaws providing that the stockholders may not take action by written consent. Additionally, our Board of Directors has the authority to issue 10 million shares of preferred stock and to determine the terms of those shares of stock without any further action by the stockholders. The rights of holders of our common stock are subject to the rights of the holders of any preferred stock that may be issued. The issuance of preferred stock could make it more difficult for a third-party to acquire a majority of our outstanding voting stock. Delaware law also prohibits corporations from engaging in a business combination with any holders of 15% or more of their capital stock until the holder has held the stock for three years unless, among other possibilities, the Board of D irectors approves the transaction. Our Board of Directors may use these provisions to prevent changes in the management and control of our company. Also, on December 18, 2006, our Board of Directors declared a dividend distribution of one Preferred Stock Purchase Right (collectively, the “Rights”) for each outstanding share of our Common Stock, each Right which entitles the registered holder to purchase from the Company one one-thousandth of a share of the Company’s Series D Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value, at a price of $25.00 pursuant to a Rights Agreement dated as of December 19, 2006, between the Company and Mellon Investor Services LLC, that expires December 19, 2016. The Rights have certain anti-takeover effects. Under certain circumstances the Rights could cause substantial dilution to a person or group who attempts to acquire the Company on terms not approved by our Board of Directors. Although the Rights should not interfere with an acquisition of the Company approved by the B oard, the Rights may have the effect of delaying and perhaps improving the terms of an acquisition for our stockholders, or deterring an acquisition of the Company. Also, under applicable Delaware law, our Board of Directors may adopt additional anti-takeover measures in the future.

We may be subject to product liability lawsuits, and our insurance may be inadequate to cover damages.

Clinical trials of any of our current and potential products or the actual commercial sales of our product may expose us to liability claims from the use of these products. We currently carry product liability insurance. However, we cannot be certain that we will be able to maintain insurance on acceptable terms, if at all, for clinical and commercial activities, that any insurance we have will cover any particular claim that is asserted, or that the insurance would be sufficient to cover any potential product liability claim or recall. If we fail to have sufficient coverage, our business, results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected.

If we are unable to comply with environmental and other laws and regulations, our business may be harmed.

We are subject to various federal, state and local laws, regulations and recommendations relating to the use, manufacture, storage, handling and disposal of hazardous materials and waste products (including radioactive compounds and infectious disease agents), as well as safe working conditions, laboratory and manufacturing practices and the experimental use of animals. The extent of government regulation that might result from future legislation or administrative action in these areas cannot be accurately predicted.

We do not currently maintain hazardous materials at our facilities. While we outsource our research and development programs involving the controlled use of biohazardous materials, if in the future we conduct these programs ourselves, we might be required to incur significant cost to comply with environmental laws and regulations. Further, in the event of an accident, we would be liable for any damages that result, and the liability could exceed our resources.

Our business and operations are subject to the risks of being based in particular locations known for earthquakes, other natural catastrophic disasters and service interruptions.

Our corporate headquarters are located in the Silicon Valley area of Northern California, a region known for seismic activity. Although we maintain a disaster recovery policy that includes storage of important corporate data in a different geographic region of the US, all of our significant corporate data is stored in our headquarters facility and accordingly, a significant natural disaster, such as an earthquake, could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Most of our sales are into China for which we maintain our warehouses for finished goods in Hong Kong, which can experience severe typhoon storms, earthquakes or other natural catastrophic disasters. Although our distributors in China may maintain several months supply of our product, were our warehouse capability to be interrupted, either through a natural disaster such as flooding or through a service interruption, such as a lack of electricity to power required air conditioning, our ability to timely deliver finished product to China could be adversely affected which in turn would materially adversely affect our sales and ensuing operating results.

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We may be affected by climate change and market or regulatory responses to climate change.  

Climate change, including the impact of global warming, could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition, and liquidity if it were to disrupt the demand, supply or delivery of product, management of our business, or result in cost increases as a result of government regulation.

Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.

In the ordinary course of our business, we store sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information, certain information regarding our business partners, and personally identifiable information of our employees, in our computer networks. The secure maintenance and transmission of this information is critical to our operations and reputation. Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breached due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Although we have not been adversely affected in any significant manner, we have experienced problems with information security in the past which we believe is primarily due to breaches of security by current or former employees gaining access to restricted information. Any such breach could compromise our computer networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Although we have purchased cyber liability insurance, any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, and regulatory penalties, and damage our reputation, any of which could adversely affect our business and competitive position.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments  

None.

Item 2. Properties

We currently lease approximately 11,900 square feet of office space for our corporate headquarters in Foster City, California, approximately 40,600 square feet of office space in China, primarily in Beijing and Shanghai, and lease approximately 6,1 00 square feet of combined office space in Hong Kong and Vietnam. We believe that our existing facilities will be adequate for our current needs and that additional space will be available as needed.

Item 3. Legal Proceedings    

As previously disclosed, since 2010 the SEC and the DOJ ha d each been conducting formal investigations of us regarding a range of matters, including the possibility of violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), primarily related to certain historical sales and marketing activities with respect to our China operations. In response to these matters, our Board appointed a Special Committee of independent directors (the “Special Committee”) to oversee our response to the government inquiry. Based on an initial review, the Special Committee decided to undertake an independent investigation as to matters reflected in and arising from the SEC and DOJ investigations in order to evaluate whether any violation of the FCPA or other laws occurred.

As previously disclosed, we entered into a settlement agreement with the SEC that fully resolved the SEC’s investigation. Under the terms of the settlement agreement, we paid a total of $12.8 million in February 2016 , including disgorgement, pre-judgment interest and a penalty. The payment is in line with the charges we previously recorded and disclosed in our Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 10, 2015. As part of the agreement, we neither admitted nor denied engagement in any wrongdoing and we agreed to give status reports to the SEC for the next three years on our continued remediation and implementation of anti-corruption compliance measures . The DOJ has also completed its related investigation and has declined to pursue any action.

 

As previously disclosed, we have taken, and continue to take certain steps to enhance our existing anti-bribery compliance efforts, including (i) evaluating and expanding our training of employees regarding understanding and compliance with laws including the FCPA and other anti-bribery laws and regulations, (ii) evaluating existing compliance and anti-bribery policies and guidelines and preparing new, more detailed policies and guidelines for implementation after review by our Board of Directors and/or committees of the Board of Directors, (iii) implementing a pre-approval policy for certain expenses including payments for, or reimbursement of, travel and entertainment expenses, and sponsorships of certain third-party events, (iv) establishing an automated system for recording and approving travel a nd entertainment expenditures, and (v) hiring a Vice President of Compliance and an Internal Audit Director to monitor and enforce compliance with our policies. Also, upon the recommendation of the Special Committee, the Audit Committee of

35

 


 

the Board has retained a third-party consultant to observe and make recommendations regarding our FCPA compliance. We will continue to emphasize the importance of compliance and ethical business conduct.

NovaMed was a party to a Distribution and Supply Agreement with MEDA originally entered into in 2007. Following our acquisition of NovaMed in 2011, MEDA claimed it had a right to terminate the agreement under a change of control provision. NovaMed does not believe that MEDA had a right of termination under the agreement. NovaMed filed an application for binding arbitration with the China International Economic and Trade Arbitration Commission (“CIETAC”) on July 26, 2012. On April 2 , 2014, CIETAC issued the final Award of the Arbitral Tribunal. The Arbitral Tribunal found that MEDA did have a right to terminate the agreement upon a change of control, but that MEDA must make reasonable reimbursement to NovaMed before any product rights are returned to MEDA. The amount that must be paid includes $333,333 as “unjust enrichment” plus an amount for reasonable compensation for such services provided by NovaMed to MEDA. The amount of such payment for services was not determined by the Arbitral Tribunal, but was left to be determined by NovaMed. On April 30, 2014, NovaMed informed MEDA that its determination of reasonable compensation for its services was $3,314,629, including the $333,333 for unjust enrichment . MEDA made a counter offer and the parties were attempting to resolve the matter without an additional arbitration proceeding. In December 2014, NovaMed filed a “Request for Second Arbitration” with CIETAC in order to enforce its right to compensation. The arbitration case is pending with CIETAC and no hearing has taken place yet. The amount of any final payment to NovaMed remains uncertain, and as such the Company has not recognized it as a gain contingency.

Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures  

Not applicable.

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P ART II

Item 5. Market for the Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities  

Our common stock trades on The NASDAQ Global Select Market of the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol “SCLN.”

The following table sets forth the high and low sales prices per share for the quarterly periods indicated, as reported by The NASDAQ Stock Market. The quotations shown represent inter-dealer prices without adjustment for retail markups, markdowns, or commissions, and may not necessarily reflect actual transactions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Price Range

 

Common Stock

 

 

High

 

 

Low

2015

 

 

 

 

 

4th quarter

$

10.94 

 

$

6.70 

3rd quarter

 

11.71 

 

 

6.47 

2nd quarter

 

9.87 

 

 

8.07 

1st quarter

 

9.65 

 

 

7.01 

2014

 

 

 

 

 

4th quarter

$

9.14 

 

$

6.59 

3rd quarter

 

7.40 

 

 

4.68 

2nd quarter

 

5.39 

 

 

4.24 

1st quarter

 

5.34 

 

 

4.25 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S tockholders

As of March 7 , 2016 , there were approximately 200 holders of record of our common stock and 49,624,211  shares of common stock issued and outstanding. Because many of our shares of common stock are held by brokers and other institutions on behalf of stockholders we are unable to estimate the total number of stockholders represented by these record holders.

Dividends

We have not paid any dividends on our common stock during the fiscal years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 and do not currently have plans to pay any cash dividends.

Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans

The information required by Item 201(d) of Regulation S-K is incorporated by reference from the section entitled “Securities Authorized for Issuance under Equity Compensation Plans” in Part III, Item 12 of this Form 10-K.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

There were no common stock repurchases for the fourth quart er of fiscal 2015. As of December 31, 2015, the Company had repurchased $78.1 million under the   authorized $80.5 million stock repurchase program that expired December 31, 2015.  

37

 


 

Performance Graph

This performance graph shall not be deemed “soliciting material” or to be “filed” with the SEC for purposes of Section 18 of the Exchange Act, or otherwise subject to the liabilities under that Section, and shall not be deemed to be incorporated by reference into any of our filings under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act.

The following line graph compares the annual percentage change in (i) the cumulative total stockholder return on the Company’s Comm on Stock since December 31, 2010 , with (ii) the cumulative total return on (a) The NASDAQ Composite Index and (b) the NASDAQ Biotechnology Index. The comparison assumes (i) an investm ent of $100 on December 31, 2010 in each of the foregoing indices and (ii) reinvestment of dividends, if any. The stock price performance shown on the graph below is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

 

PICTURE 3

 

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data  

This section presents selected historical financial data for each of the last five fiscal years and is qualified by reference to and should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The selected balance sh eet data as of December 31, 2015 and 2014 and the selected statement of operations data for each year e nded December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013   have been derived from our audited financial statements that are included elsewhere in this report. The selected balance sheet data as of December 31, 2013, 2012, and 2011   and the selected statement of operations data for e ach year ended December 31, 2012 and 2011 have been derived from our audited financial statements not included in this report. H istorical results are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected in the future.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Year Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands, except per share data)

 

2015 (1)

 

2014

 

2013 (1)

 

2012 (2)

 

2011 (3)

Statement of Operations data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total net revenues

$

157,257 

 

$

134,790 

 

$

127,058 

 

$

156,269 

 

$

132,565 

Net income

$

29,463 

 

$

25,208 

 

$

10,964 

 

$

9,620 

 

$

28,122 

Basic net income per share

$

0.59 

 

$

0.49 

 

$

0.20 

 

$

0.17 

 

$

0.51 

Diluted net income per share

$

0.56 

 

$

0.48 

 

$

0.20 

 

$

0.16 

 

$

0.49 

Shares used in computing:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic net income per share

 

49,797 

 

 

51,277 

 

 

53,587 

 

 

56,637 

 

 

55,110 

Diluted net income per share

 

52,173 

 

 

52,684 

 

 

54,936 

 

 

58,483 

 

 

57,387 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(in thousands)

 

2015 (1)

 

2014

 

2013 (1)

 

2012 (2)

 

2011 (3)

Balance Sheet data:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

101,403 

 

$

86,228 

 

$

85,803 

 

$

84,228 

 

$

66,654 

Restricted cash in escrow for SEC settlement

 

12,826 

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Accounts receivable, net of allowance

 

39,363 

 

 

40,268 

 

 

39,771 

 

 

38,109 

 

 

38,465 

Inventories

 

10,976 

 

 

10,703 

 

 

15,238 

 

 

10,424 

 

 

11,141 

Deferred tax assets

 

299 

 

 

326 

 

 

 

 

369 

 

 

1,788 

Total current assets

 

168,521 

 

 

140,197 

 

 

143,417 

 

 

137,329 

 

 

119,694 

Intangible assets, net

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

45,185 

Goodwill

 

32,979 

 

 

34,521 

 

 

35,357 

 

 

34,313 

 

 

33,868 

Total assets

 

216,619 

 

 

181,831 

 

 

179,859 

 

 

174,071 

 

 

200,844 

Borrowings

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

1,651 

 

 

1,445 

 

 

2,500 

Contingent consideration

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

15,400 

Deferred revenue

 

174 

 

 

596 

 

 

2,915 

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

Deferred tax liabilities

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

 —

 

 

153 

 

 

8,407 

Other long-term liabilities

 

87 

 

 

114 

 

 

44 

 

 

237 

 

 

469 

Total stockholders’ equity

 

179,712 

 

 

155,274 

 

 

146,595 

 

 

143,022 

 

 

150,119 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

We recorded a charge of $2.0 million for 2013 related to the possibility of a settlement, and recorded an additional charge of $10.8 million associated with the SEC settlement for 2015. Refer to Part I, Item 3 for further information regarding the SEC and DOJ investigations.

(2)

During fiscal 2012, we identified an impairment indicator with respect to our intangible assets related to our promotion and distribution contract rights and recorded losses of approximately $42.7 million to recognize the full impairment. We recorded a benefit for income tax of approximately $6.8 million for the year ended December 31, 2012 due to the impairment of intangible assets, which resulted in a reversal of deferred tax liabilities. This was partially offset by the impact of recognizing a full valuation allowance on any remaining NovaMed deferred tax assets. In addition, we recorded a non-cash gain of $15.4 million related to the contingent consideration because revenue and EBITDA targets of NovaMed were not achieved.

(3)

On April 18, 2011, we acquired NovaMed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("NovaMed") for approximately $24.6 million in cash and 8,298,110 shares of SciClone common stock and a contingent right to receive additional cash consideration (“the contingent consideration”) of up to $43.0 million based upon achievement of revenue and earnings targets for the 2011 and 2012 fiscal years. Commencing April 18, 2011, the Company’s financial statements include the assets, liabilities, and operating results of NovaMed.

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Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations  

This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the “Selected Financial Data” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. This Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and other parts of this Annual Report on Form 10-K contain forward-looking statements which involve risks and uncertainties. See “Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors” contained in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

SciClone Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: SCLN) is a United States (“US”)-headquartered, China-focused, specialty pharmaceutical company with a substantial commercial business and a product portfolio of therapies for oncology, infectious diseases and cardiovascular disorders. We are focused on continuing to grow our revenue and profitability. Our business and corporate strategy is focused primarily on the People’s Republic of China (“China” or “PRC” ) where we have built a solid reputation and established a strong brand through many years of experience marketing our lead product, ZADAXIN ®   (thymalfasin). In addition, we have an established product promotion business model with large pharmaceutical partners and we are focused on establishing profitability in all of these collaborations. We believe our sales and marketing strengths position us to benefit from the long-term expansion of the pharmaceutical market in China. Th e Chinese pharmaceutical market currently ranks second among the global pharmaceutical markets, and   had an estimated worth of $105 billion in 2014 . It is forecasted to increase significantly to $200 billion by 2020.   We seek to expand our presence in China and increase revenues by growing sales and profits of our current product portfolio, launching new products from our development pipeline, adding new, profitable product services agreements and leveraging our strong cash position to in-license additional products.

We operate in two segments which are generally based on the nature and location of our customers: 1) China and 2) the Rest of the World, which includes our US and Hong Kong operations.

We have two categories of revenues: “product sales revenues” and “promotion services revenues.” Our product sales revenues result from our proprietary and in-licensed products, including our lead product, ZADAXIN; DC Bead ® ,   a product for the embolization of malignant hypervascularized tumors, for which we initiated sales and recorded product revenue beginning in the third quarter of 2015, and products from Pfizer International Trading (Shanghai) Ltd. (“Pfizer”). Through June 30, 2015, our product sales revenues also included Aggrastat ® , an intervention cardiology product launched in China in 2009, in-licensed from Cardiome Pharma Corp (“Cardiome”). In August 2015, we and Cardiome mutually agreed to end our collaboration for Aggrastat, thereby terminating our exclusive distribution rights in China, and return ing all rights to the product to Cardiome . We recorded Aggrastat revenues of $1.8 million, $1.1 million and $0 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively, and we do not expect to generate any further Aggrastat revenues. We do not anticipate that the termination of this agreement will adversely affect our profitability.

ZADAXIN has the highest margins in our portfolio as it is a premium product sold exclusively by SciClone. In addition, we anticipate that new marketed products, when and if introduced, can increase the future revenues and profitability of our pharmaceutical business in China over the coming years. Our “promotion services revenues” result primarily from fees we receive for exclusively promoting products in China for Baxter International, Inc. (“Baxter”). We recognize promotion services revenues as a percentage of our collaborators’ product sales revenue for these exclusively promoted products. Over time, as additional proprietary or in-licensed products come to the market, we aim to shift our product mix towards those products providing higher margins for us.

ZADAXIN is approved in over 30 countries and may be used for the treatment of HBV, HCV, and certain ca ncers, and as a n immune system   enhancer according to the local regulatory approvals we have in these countries. In China, thymalfasin is included in the treatment guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health (“MOH”) for liver cancer, as well as guidelines for treatment of chronic HBV (issued by both the Chinese Medical Association and the Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver) and invasive fungal infections of critically ill patients (issued by the Chinese Medical Association). Our sales force is focused on increasing sales to the country’s largest hospitals (class 3A with over 500 beds) as well as mid-size hospitals (class 2A). These hospitals serve Tier 1 and Tier 2 cities located mostly in the eastern part of China, which are the largest and generally have the most affluent populations. We are widening our market strategies by piloting e-commerce approaches to reach customers.   We are also seeking to expand the indications for which ZADAXIN could be used, including sepsis.

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We initiated sales and recorded our first product revenue from DC Bead in the third quarter of fiscal 2015. The China Food and Drug Administration had approved the registration of DC Bead for the embolization of malignant hypervascularized tumors in August 2014. DC Bead may be used to treat liver cancer, a large and growing indication in China, and we believe our oncology sales team and academic marketing liaisons have established high quality relationships with medical professionals and institutions that specialize in cancer treatment, which we believe will be a valuable asset as we continue commercial sales of DC Bead. BioCompatibles UK Ltd. (“BTG”) and SciClone previously entered into an agreement granting SciClone exclusive licensing and distribution rights to DC Bead in China. Under the agreement, we are purchasing DC Bead product from BTG.

We are also pursuing the registration of several other therapeutic products in China. These include: Loramyc ® , a mucoadhesive tablet formulation of miconazole lauriad to treat oropharyngeal candidiasis; and RapidFilm ® , an oral film formulation of ondansetron to treat nausea induced by chemotherapy.

Our agreement with Baxter is for a 5-year term, through December 2017, and our agreement with Pfizer is for a 5-year term, through June 2019. We are pursuing additional agreements to generate additional revenue. We continue to seek in-licensing arrangements for well-differentiated products at various stages of development that, if not yet approved, have a defined regulatory approval pathway in China. Our objective is to in-license products that provide us with higher margins, augmenting our product sales revenue and profitability, and we continue to explore opportunities to optimize our promotion services revenues.

In May 2015, Theravance Biopharma, Inc. (“Theravance Biopharma”) granted SciClone exclusive development and commercialization rights to VIBATIV ®   (telavancin) in China, as well as the Hong Kong SAR, the Macau SAR, Taiwan and Vietnam, in exchange for upfront and regulatory milestone payments totaling $6 million. SciClone will be responsible for all aspects of development and commercialization in the partnered regions, including pre- and post-launch activities and product registration. SciClone will initially develop VIBATIV for hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, and additional indications may include complicated skin and skin structure infections and potentially bacteremia. Theravance Biopharma will sell to SciClone all clinical and commercial product required to develop and commercialize VIBATIV in China and our other licensed territories.

In December 2014, we entered into a strategic partnership with The Medicines Company for two cardiovascular products in China. The partnership includes an agreement granting us a license and the exclusive rights in China to promote two products including 1) Angiomax ®   (bivalirudin) for Injection, an anticoagulant indicated in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with provisional use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (GPI) and in patients with, or at risk of, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis syndrome undergoing PCI for which a Phase 3 registration trial was completed in China and is currently under review by the China Food and Drug Administration for marketing approval, and 2) Cleviprex ®   (clevidipine) Injectable Emulsion, a third-generation dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker indicated for the reduction of blood pressure when oral therapy is not feasible or desirable for which a clinical trial application (CTA) for China was filed in 2013. We received CTA approval from the China Food and Drug Administration (“CFDA”) in early 2016 and are preparing a clinical study. Under the terms of the agreement, we will be responsible for all aspects of commercialization, including pre-and post-launch activities, for both products in the China market (excluding Hong Kong and Macao). We have also agreed to participate in the China registration process for both products. Financial terms of the agreement, in addition to net sales royalties payable to The Medicines Company, include the following additional payments to The Medicines Company: an upfront payment made in the fourth quarter of 2014; a project support services fee; and regulatory/commercial success milestone payments of up to an aggregate of $50.5 million.  

In June 2013, we entered into a license agreement with Taiwan Liposome Company (“TLC”) which granted us a license and the exclusive rights in China, Hong Kong and Macao to promote, market, distribute and sell ProFlow ®   for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease (“PAD”) and other indications. PAD is a serious cardiovascular condition in which blood flow to the limbs (usually the legs) is restricted due to arterial plaque build-up. Under the terms of the agreement, TLC will be responsible for the continued development including potential clinical trials and regulatory activities, as well as the manufacture and supply of ProFlow, and we will be responsible for all aspects of commercialization including pre-and post-launch activities. The agreement provides for the principal terms of the arrangement between SciClone and TLC, and in March 2014, the companies entered into a supplemental collaboration and license agreement. In November 2014, TLC was notified by the CFDA that ProFlow did not receive clinical trial approval and TLC is in the process of appealing the decision.

In May 2013, we entered into a framework agreement with Zensun (Shanghai) Science & Technology Co., Ltd. (“Zensun”) for the exclusive promotion, marketing, distribution and sale of Neucardin TM in China, Hong Kong and Macao. Neucardin is a novel,

41

 


 

first-in-class therapeutic for the treatment of patients with intermediate to advanced heart failure, for which a New Drug Application (“NDA”) was submitted to and accepted for review by the CFDA in 2012 .   In December 2013, t he CFDA informed Zensun that its Phase 2 data is insufficient, and has asked Zensun to submit a new NDA once the ongoing Phase 3 study reached its endpoints. As part of our agreement with Zensun, we agreed to loan up to $12 million to Zensun, of which $12 million had been loaned as of December 31, 2015 (refer to Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements appearing under Part II, Item 8 for further information regarding the Zensun loans).

For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, we recognized $7 .5 million , $11 million and $5.0 million , respectively, in research and development expenses related to our in-license arrangements.

Recent governmental policy changes in China have eliminated national regulation of the maximum retail drug prices for most drugs effective as of June 1, 2015. Decisions by provincial authorities appear to be emerging as the primary governmental mechanism for price controls. As an example, the Zhejiang provincial authority announced a price limitation for sales of ZADAXIN in the province in April 2015 that became effective in May 2015. We were able to mitigate the impact of this price limitation by shifting an equitable portion of the burden of the price reduction to our distributor in our sales channel; accordingly, the impact of the price reduction through the year ended December 31, 2015 was $2. 8 million. We anticipate that provincial pricing decisions will continue to be a significant factor in the China pharmaceutical market for the foreseeable future. The impact of such decisions on our future results is unpredictable, but we expect that pricing pressures on revenue in 2016 will be offset at least in significant part through sharing of the burden with our China distributor and potentially thr ough volume increases. However, in the future, prices could be reduced to levels significantly below those that would prevail in an unregulated market, which may limit the growth of our revenues or cause them to decline.   In addition, our new contractual arrangement with Sinopharm Holding Lingyun Biopharmaceutical (Shanghai) Co. Ltd (Sinopharm), our China distributor f or ZADAXIN ,   which commenced January 1, 2016 will result in the later recognition (relative to practices prevailing through December 31, 2015) of a portion of our revenue invoiced to Sinopharm in   situations where the provincial tender price is greater relative to a referenced (baseline) tender price. This is due to a mechanism in the new contractual arrangement whereby the customer is invoiced at a lower base price relative to that prevailing in the previous agreement. The lower base price (as well as estimated price compensation payable due to the distributor for situations where the provincial tender price is lower than the referenced (baseline) tender price) will be recorded as revenue after the sale is completed. The distributor will then be invoiced for the portion of the price that may result from situations where the provincial tender price is greater than the referenced (baseline) tender price at a later time, and such amount will be recognized as revenue after the amount has been agreed to with the distributor. Al though we do not expect this new arrangement to have a significant impact on annual revenue or the amount recognized on an annual basis , it may impact quarterly revenue amounts and timing , especially for the first quarter of 2016.    

As previously disclosed, since 2010 the US Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and the US Department of Justice (“DOJ”) had each been conducting formal investigations of us regarding a range of matters, including the possibility of violations of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”). On February 4, 2016, we announced that we have entered into a settlement agreement with the SEC fully resolving the SEC’s investigation into possible violations of the FCPA. Under the terms of the settlement agreement, in February 2016 we paid a total of $12.8 million, including disgorgement, pre-judgment interest and a penalty as final settlement which was released from our restricted escrow account which we funded in the fourth quarter of 2015. This payment is in line with the charges we previously recorded and disclosed in our Form 10-Q filed with the SEC on August 10, 2015. As part of the agreement we neither admitted nor denied engagement in any wrongdoing and we agreed to give status reports to the SEC for the next three years on our continued remediation and implementation of anti-corruption compliance measures. The DOJ has also completed its related investigation and has declined to pursue any action (refer to Notes 18 and 22 to the consolidated financial statements appearing under Part II, Item 8 and “Legal Proceedings” in Part I, Item 3 for further information regarding the SEC and DOJ investigations).

We believe our cash and cash equivalents as of December 31, 2015 and ongoing revenue generating business operations will be sufficient to support our current operating plan for at least the next 12 months. Our results may fluctuate from quarter to quarter and we may report losses in the future.

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Results of Operations

Revenues:

The following table summarizes the year over year changes in our product sales and promotion services revenues (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

2015

 

Change

  

2014

 

Change

 

2013

Product Sales, net

  

$

154,329 

 

17% 

  

$

131,973 

 

33% 

 

$

99,414 

Promotion Services

 

 

2,928 

 

4% 

 

 

2,817 

 

-90%

 

 

27,644 

Total Net Revenues

 

$

157,257 

 

17% 

 

$

134,790 

 

6% 

 

$

127,058 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Product sales were $ 154.3 million ,   $132.0 million ,   and $99.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 ,   respectively. The in crease of $ 22.4 million, or 17 %, for   the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to 2014 , was primarily attributable to an increase in ZADAXIN unit sales and stronger demand for certain oncology products . ZADAXIN sales were $ 146.1   million for the year ended December 31, 2015 , compared to $126.1 million for the prior year, an increase of $ 20.0 million ,   or 16 %, which mainly relat ed to a 21 % increase in volume sold, offset partially by a 5 % decrease in selling price mainly related to a decrease in the list price of ZADAXIN in the Zhejiang province since May 2015 .   Product sales for the year ended December 31, 2015, also included   Pfizer product sales and initia l immaterial DC Bead revenue .  

The in crease in product sales of $32.6 million, or 33%, for the year ended December 31, 2014 compared to 2013, was primarily attributable to an increase in ZAD AXIN unit sales and stronger demand for certain oncology products . ZADAXIN sales were $126.1 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to $96.3 million for the prior year, an increase of $29.8 million ,   or 31%, which mainly related to an increase in volume sold, and to a lesser extent related to an increase in selling price. We believe our ZADAXIN product revenues in the first half of fiscal 2013 were adversely affected by the increase in channel inventory we experienced in the third quarter of 2012. We believe channel inventory for ZADAXIN ha s returned to normalized levels.

We anticipate that ZADAXIN revenues in 2016 will be higher than 2015, although our revenues are subject to exchange rate fluctuations and provincial adjustments to tender (retail level, government approved) prices which we cannot predict .   The majority of our sales have been in US dollars, although a portion of our s ales are denominated in RMB .   Per our previous contractual arrangement with Sinopharm through December 31, 2015, and a renewed contractual arrangement with Sinopharm (our sole importer and distributor for ZADAXIN in China) which took effect January 1, 2016, our sales of ZADAXIN to Sinopharm have been and continue to be denominated in US dollars. However, the established importer price may be adjusted quarterly based upon exchange rate fluctuations between the US dollar and RMB. Our China ZADAXIN sales revenues are subject to exchange rate risk, and in recent months the RMB has experienced devaluation. In addition, per our previous contractual arrangement with Sinopharm during the year ended December 31, 2015, and a renewed contractual arrange ment with Sinopharm which took e ffect January 1, 2016, our contracted sales prices to Sinopharm are subject to adjustment based on changes in tender prices within the province territories .   In addition, our new contractual arrangement with Sinopharm which commenced January 1, 2016 will result in the later recognition (relative to practices prevailing through December 31, 2015) of a portion of our revenue invoiced to Sinopharm in   situations where the provincial tender price is greater relative to a referenced (baseline) tender price .   This is due to a mechanism in the new contractual arrangement whereby the customer is invoiced at a lower base price relative to that prevailing in the previous agreement. The lower base price (as well as estimated price compensation payable due to the distributor for situations where the provincial tender price is lower than the referenced (baseline) tender price) will be recorded as revenue after the sale is completed. The distributor will then be invoiced for the portion of the price that may result from situations where the provincial tender price is greater than the referenced (baseline) tender price at a later time, and such amount will be recognized as revenue after the amount has been agreed to with the distributor. Although we do not expect this new arrangement to have a significant impact on annual revenue or the amount recognized on an annual basis , it may impact quarterly revenue amounts and timing , especially for the first quarter of 2016.    

Recent governmental policy changes in China have eliminated national regulation of the maximum retail drug prices for most drugs effective as of June 1, 2015. Decisions by provincial authorities appear to be emerging as the primary governmental mechanism for price controls. As an example, the Zhejiang provincial authority announced a price limitation for sales of ZADAXIN in the province in April 2015 that became effective in May 2015. Changes in provincial drug prices for ZADAXIN in the provinces could impact our future sales revenues.

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In China, pharmaceutical products are imported and distributed through a tiered method of distribution. For our proprietary product ZADAXIN, we manufacture our product using our US and European contract manufacturers, and we generate our product sales revenue through sales of ZADAXIN product to Sinopharm . Sinopharm act s as an importer, and also as the top “tier” of the distribution system (“Tier 1”) in China. Our ZADAXIN sales occur when Sinopharm purchases product from us without any right of return except for replacement of product in the event of damaged product or quality control issues. Passage of title and risk of loss are transferred to Sinopharm at the time of arrival of a shipment at its destination . After the sale, Sinopharm clears products through China import customs, sells directly to large hospitals and holds additional product it has purchased in inventory for sale to the next tier in the distribution system. The second-tier (“Tier 2”) distributors are responsible for the further sale and distribution of the products they purchase from the importer, either through sales of product directly to the retail level (hospitals and pharmacies), or to third-tier (“Tier 3”) local or regional distributors who, in turn, sell products to hospitals and pharmacies.

Promotion services revenue was $ 2.9 million ,   $ 2.8 million ,   and $ 27.6 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively , and related to products promoted under agreements with Baxter and Sanofi Aventis S.A . (“Sanofi”).   Promotion services revenue increased $ 0.1 million or 4 % for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 2014, related to an increase in Endoxan TM   (Baxter) product sales .   Promotion services revenue decreased $24.8 million or 90% for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to 2013, related to the expiration of our promotion al agreements with Sanofi as of December 31, 2013.

Our promotion agreements with Sanofi, consisting of individual promotional agreements for certain pharmaceutical products and supplementary agreements extending the terms thereof, were not renewed and expired on December 31, 2013. NovaMed Pharmaceuticals ( Shanghai ) Co. Ltd. (“NovaMed Shanghai”) and Sanofi negotiated a settlement of certain amounts in dispute, effective as of July 14, 2014, and NovaMed Shanghai received approximately 22 million RMB (approximately $3.5 million) in August 2014 as final payment from Sanofi. The terms of the settlement resulted in the recognition of promotion services revenue, for the second quarter of 2014, of approximately $0.2 million of Sanofi revenue that had been deferred in the fourth quarter of 2013. The remaining approximately $2.6 million of deferred revenue that had been deferred in the fourth quarter of 2013 was reversed with an equivalent write-down of accounts receivable. This contemporaneous write-down of accounts receivable and deferred revenue had no impact on net income for the second quarter of 2014 or for the year ended December 31, 2014. Our revenues for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, with Sanofi were $0, $0.2 million, and $25.0 million, respectively.

Our Baxter promotion agreement is for a 5-year term, through December 2017. Our Pfizer product distribution agreement is for a 5-year term, through June 2019. In August 2015, we and Cardiome, from whom we licensed Aggrastat ® ,   mutually agreed to end our collaboration for Aggrastat, and return all rights to the product to Cardiome. We recorded Aggrastat revenues of $1.8 million, $1.1 million and $0 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively, and we do not expect to generate any further Aggrastat revenues. We do not anticipate that the termination of this agreement will adversely affect our profitability.

We continue to assess the financial performance of the products we promote and distribute under our agreements and their overall value within our entire portfolio of products. Over time, we anticipate the product mix that we promote will change, which may affect our revenues and profitability in the future. If any of these agreements are determined to no longer be beneficial to us and are allowed to expire, or if third parties will not renegotiate, renew or extend the agreements on terms acceptable to us, our revenues would be adversely affected and our profitability may be adversely or beneficially affected. On the other hand, if we are successful in negotiating better terms, there may be a positive impact on our revenues and profitability.

All of our promotion services revenue and a majority of our product revenues related to our China segment. Total China revenues were $ 151.6 million ,   $130.3 million,   and $122.6 million , or 96 %, 97% and 97% of sales for t he years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 , respectively . Rest of the World segment revenues were $ 5.7 million ,   $4.5 million, and $4.4 million , or   4%, 3%, and 3%, for   each of the years ended December 3 1, 2015, 2014 and 2013 ,   respectively, and related to sales of ZADAXIN product.

For the year s ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, sales to   Sinopharm in China accounted for approximately 97 % and 94% of our revenues , respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2013, sales to Sinopharm and Sanofi in China accounted for approximately 75% and 20% of our revenues , respectively, (prior to the expiration of our promotion agreements with Sanofi) . Our experience with our largest customer has been good and we anticipate that we will continue to sell a majority of our product to them.

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Cost of Product Sales:

The following table summarizes the year over year changes in our cost of product sales (in thousands) :

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

2015

 

Change

  

2014

 

Change

 

2013

Cost of Product Sales

  

$

22,348 

 

-3%

  

$

23,002 

 

30% 

 

$

17,668 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost of product sales was $22.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $23.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 , a decrease of $0.7 million. The decrease in cost of sales of $0.7 million, or 3%, for the year ended December 31, 2015 compared to 2014 was primarily attributable to a $2.9 million decrease in cost of product sales of Aggrastat as we had recorded a provision of $2.1 million for excess Aggrastat inventory during the year ended December 31, 2014 that didn’t recur for the year ended December 31, 2015 . It was also attributable to our receipt in the fourth quarter of 2015 of $1.1 million for reimbursement for Aggrastat inventory returned that we had previously fully written off in 2014 , which was recorded as a red uction in cost of product sales. These decreases in cost of product sales were partially offset by increases in cost of product sales related to ZADAXIN and certain oncology product sales due to increased volume sold .   C ost of product sales also increased related to initial DC Bead sales in the second half of 2015.

The in crease in cost of sales of $ 5.3 million, or 30 %, for the year ended December 3 1, 2014, compared to 2013, was attributable to a $ 2.0 million in crease in ZADAXIN cost of product sales related primarily to an in crease in ZADAXIN un it sales and a $3.3 million in crease in Aggrastat and oncology cost of sales as a result of higher sales volume of Aggrastat and certain oncology product s .   Cost of sales for Aggrastat product also increased for the year ended December 31, 2014 related to a provision of $ 2.1 million for excess Aggrastat inventory expected to expire and $0.2 million associated with Aggrastat inventory shipped within six months of expiration.

ZADAXIN cost of sales were $18.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to $ 17.5 million and $15.5 million for the year s ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively. Gross margin for ZADAXIN was 87.3 % for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 86.1% and 83.9% for the year s ended December 31, 2014 and 2013, respectively.   The increase in gross margin for ZADAXIN for the year s ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 , compared to the year ended December 31, 2013 , was due primarily to higher production volume lowering per unit overhead costs and manufacturing efficiencies.

We expect our ZADAXIN cost of product sales and gross margins to fluctuate from period to period depending on the level of sales and price of our products, the absorption of product-related fixed costs, currency exchange fluctuations, any charges associated with excess or expiring finished product inventory, and the timing of other inventory period costs   such as manufacturing process improvements for the goal of future cost reductions.

Overall, we expect our gross margin pe rcentages in 2016 to be lower than 201 5 ,   based on lower selling prices as set by one province, with indications of others to follow, as well as the unfavorable impact of currency exchange fluctuations.

Sales and Marketing (“S&M”) :

The following table summarizes the year over year changes in our sales and marketing expenses (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

2015

 

Change

  

2014

 

Change

 

2013

Sales and Marketing

  

$

53,961 

 

11% 

  

$

48,477 

 

-12%

 

$

55,240 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

S&M expenses were $54.0 million, $48.5 million, and $55.2 million, for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013 , respectively .   S&M expenses increased by $ 5.5 million, or 1 1 %, for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 2014, related to growth in our S&M efforts for ZADAXIN and DC Bead. S&M expen ses decreased by $6.8 million, or 12%, for the year ended December 31, 2014 , compared to 2013, related to the expiration of the Sanofi distribution agreements and the reduction in costs associated with marketing the products under the Sanofi agreements. The reductions in S&M expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to 2013, were partially offset by increases in our S&M efforts for ZADAXIN in 2014.

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We anticipate total S&M expenses for t he year ending December 31, 2016 to be higher than those incurred for the year ended December 31, 2015 related to growth in our S&M efforts for ZADAXIN .

Research and Development (“R&D”):

The following table summarizes the year over year changes in our R&D expenses (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

2015

 

Change

  

2014

 

Change

 

2013

Research and Development

 

$

12,314 

 

-16%

  

$

14,581 

 

81% 

 

$

8,044 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

R&D expenses were $12.3 million, $ 14.6 million, and $8.0 million, for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, we recorded $ 7. 5 million, $11.0 million and $5.0 million, respectively, in R&D expenses related to upfront and milestone costs under our in-license arrangements .   In addition, during the year ended December 31, 2015, R&D expenditures included R&D expenditures related to in-licensing agreements with certain business partners and R&D activities in China. During   the years ended December 31, 2014 and 2013 , R&D expense s   also included costs incurred related to preparation for a potential sepsis clinical study for ZADAXIN we were contemplating which has not been continued .  

The major components of R&D expenses include salaries and other personnel-related expenses, including associated stock-based compensation, facility-related expenses, depreciation of facilities and equipment, license-related fees, services performed by clinical research organizations and research institutions and other outside service providers.

We anticipate our R&D expenses to increase in 2016 compared to 2015 related to potential license fee payments, milestone payments expected to occur under license arrangements, and related to research and development activities in China.

General and Administrative (“G&A”) :

The following table summarizes the year over year changes in our G&A expenses ( in thousands ):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

2015

 

Change

  

2014

 

Change

 

2013

General and Administrative

 

$

27,897 

 

23% 

  

$

22,746 

 

-30%

 

$

32,496 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G&A expenses were $ 2 7 . 9 million, $ 22.7 million, and $32.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 , respectively. G&A expenses for the year ended December 31, 2015 increased by $ 5. 2 million, or 23 %, compared to the year ended December 31, 2014 mainly related to a   China legal-entity restructuring plan which we are in the process of implementing , higher professional consulting fees for b usiness development strategy, higher stock-based compensation expense, and lower credits to bad debt expense for recovery of previously written off accounts receivable, offset by lower legal expenses related to our investigations with the SEC and DOJ and lower accounting fees.

G&A expenses for the year ended December 31, 2014 decreased by $9.8 million, or 30 %, compared to the year ended December 31, 2013, mainly related to a decrease in legal fees associated with the government investigation s , MEDA Pharma GmbH & Co KG (“MEDA”) arbitration and other corporate matters. During the year ended December 31, 2014, G&A expenses also reflected credits to bad debt expense for $1.5 million in recovery of previously fully reserved substantially delinquent accounts receivable balances from a particular customer that had been fully reserved prior to 2014.   During the year ended December 31, 2013, w e recorded an additional $2.4 million in bad debt expense related to significantly past due accounts re ceivable from the customer noted above in order to fully reserve such receivables . The increase in bad debt expense was determined as a result of continual negotiations that indicate d the accounts receivable balance may not be recoverable. Additional increases in G&A expenses for the year ended December 31, 2013, included higher professional expenses of approximately $5.3 million related to legal matters associated with the government investigation s and our ongoing improvements to our FCPA compliance efforts, and approximately $1.1 million mainly related to accounting matters associated with the restatement of our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2011 and certain quarters of 2012 and 2011 and matters involving consultation with the Securities and Exchange Commission related to one aspect of our accounting for one of our contracts, as well as higher general and administrative personnel-related costs and higher legal costs related to other general corporate matters.

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We expect our G&A expenses in 2016 to increase compared to 2015 related to growth in our business. As previously disclosed in our Form 8-K issued in early February 2016 , our Board is evaluating a range of strategic transactions with a view to enhancing shareholder value. We may incur certain G&A expenses in connection with this evaluation.  

Restructuring Charges:

For the year ended December 31, 2013, we recorded $1.2 million to restructuring charges to reflect planned reductions in our China segment related to our sales force and the one-time termination benefits for approximately 175 employees as a result of the non-renewal of the Sanofi promotion agreement as of December 31, 2013. The amounts provided were paid in 2014.

SEC Settlement Expense:

We recorded a charge of $2.0 million in the fourth quarter of 2013 related to the possibility of a settlement with the SEC and DOJ regarding their investigation into possible violations of the FCPA by us, and we recorded additional charges totaling $10.8 million associated with the SEC settlement in 2015. In February 2016, we entered into a settlement agreement with the SEC fully resolving the SEC’s investigation into possible violations of the FCPA. Under the terms of the settlement agreement, in February 2016 we paid $12.8 million, including disgorgement, pre-judgement interest and a penalty as final settlement. As part of the agreement, we neither admitted nor denied engagement in any wrongdoing a nd we agreed to give status reports to the SEC for the next three years on our continued remediation and implementation of anti-corruption compliance measures . The DOJ has also completed its related investigation and has declined to pursue any actions. Refer to Part I, Item 3 “Legal Proceedings” and Part II, Item 8, Note 18 “Contingencies” and Note 22  “ Subsequent Events ” for further information on this matter.

Other Income:

On July 8, 2013, we and the representatives of the former stockholders of NovaMed entered into a “Confidential Escrow Settlement Agreement” pursuant to which we retained approximately $0.8 million in cash and 342,300 shares of our common stock, having a combined fair value of approximately $2.6 million on the settlement date. As a result, we recorded $2.6 million in the year ended December 31, 2013 to other inc ome related to this settlement.

Provision for Income Tax:

The provision for income tax relates to our foreign operations in China. The provision for income tax was $0.8 million , $1.2 million and $2.2 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014 and 2013, respectively .   Tax expense   decreased $0.4   million for the year ended December 31, 2015, compared to 2014 , mainly related to a reduction in our liabilities for uncertain tax positions (and associated accrued interest) in China due to certain tax years becoming closed to assessment due to the statute of limitations.

The tax provision decreased $1.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to the year ended December 31, 2013, principally due to a reduction of approximately $0.2 million in our liabilities for uncertain tax positions (and associated accrued interest) due to certain tax years becoming closed to assessment due to the statute of limitations. Tax expense was also lower for the year ended December 31, 2014, compared to 2013, as a result of lower taxable income related to our China operations.

The statutory t ax rate in China was 25% in 2015, 2014 and 2013 .   We expect the provision for income tax to increase for t he year ending December 31, 2016 , compared to the year ended December 31, 2015   due to growth in our China operations.

As of December 31, 2015 , we had net operating loss carryforwards for US federal income tax purposes of approximately $ 114.2 million that expire in the years 2020 through 2035 , and had approximately $52 million in net operating loss carryforwards related to our NovaMed Shanghai subsidiary that expire in the years 2016-2020 . As of December 31, 2015 , we had US federal research and development, orphan drug and investment tax credit carryforwards of approximately $12.2 million that expire in the years 2018 through 2035 .  

Because of the “change in ownership” provisions of the Internal Revenue Code, a portion of our net operating loss carryforwards and tax credit carryforwards may be subject to an annual limitation regarding their utilization against taxable income in future periods. As a result of the annual limitation, a portion of these carryforwards may expire before ultimately becoming available to reduce future income tax liabilities.

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Liquidity and Capital Resources

We continue to closely manage our liquidity and capital resources. We rely on our operating cash flows, and cash and cash equivalents   to provide for our liquidity requirements. We believe that we have the ability to meet our liquidity needs for at least the next 12 months to fund our working capital requirements of our operations, includi ng investments in our business, and to fund our business development activities.

The following tables summarize our cash and investments and our cash flow activities as of the end of, and for each of, the years presented (in thousands):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As of December 31,

 

2015

 

2014

Cash and investments

$

101,403 

 

$

86,303 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As of December 31, 2015, we had $ 101.4 million in cash and cash equivalents , in addition to the $12.8 million of restricted cash held in escrow for the SEC settlement, of which $ 98.5 million was located in subsidiaries of the Company outside the US. Cash and cash equivalents held by subsidiaries outside the US are held primarily in US dollars. Such cash and cash equivalents are used to fund the operating activities of our foreign subsidiaries and for further investment in foreign operations, which may include in-licensing new products, particularly for China, and for potential acquisitions. In the fourth quarter of 2015, we repatriated $ 12.8 million in funds via a special dividend distribution from our foreign subsidiary as a result of the need to fund an escrow facility for our SEC settlement (as previously described). This dividend distribution was made from the current year earnings and pro fits of our foreign subsidiary, which was not part of the cumulative pool of undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries as of December 31, 2014.

 

We have determined that as of December 31, 2015, $ 176.2 million of accumulated undistributed earnings of foreign subsidiaries, after the payment of the dividend which was satisfied entirely out of current year earnings and profits, continues to be indefinitely reinvested outside of the US. In making this determination, the following attributes were considered: (i) the expected future needs of the foreign subsidiaries, including working capital, capital expenditures, as well as additional investments   to support the infrastructure in our China subsidiaries and (ii) additional investments to support our expansion in the China market as well as planned product licensing transactions .   Upon distribution of our foreign undistributed earnings, we may be subject to US federal and state income taxes. Based on our current operating plan, we do not anticipate the need to repatriate undistributed earnings of cash and cash equivalents held by foreign subsidiaries accumulated as of December 31, 2015, but we do anticipate a need to repatriate a portion of future foreign earnings to fund our US operations . We will accrue for US income taxes on future foreign earnings that we anticipate repatriating from our foreign subsidiaries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  Years Ended December 31,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2015

 

2014

 

2013

 

Cash provided by (used in):

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Operating activities

$

32,507 

 

$

27,609 

 

$

9,502 

 

Investing activities

$

(9,010)

 

$

(6,203)

 

$

55 

 

Financing activities

$

(8,419)

 

$

(20,806)

 

$

(8,353)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net cash provided by operating activities was $ 32.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 and primarily reflected the net income for the period, adjusted for non-cash items such as stock-based compensation expense, provisions for doubtful accounts , depreciation and amortization expense, and changes in operating assets and liabilities. We reserved an amount of $0.5 million in the first quarter of 2015 as a bad debt charge recorded in general and administrative expense related to a customer whose receivable balance was past due which we subsequently wrote off when we determined it to be uncollectible   during the fourth quarter of 2015 .   Accounts payable and ac crued liabilities increased $9. 7 million for the year ended December 31, 2015 as compared to the prior year’s period, mainly related to the additional $ 10.8 million   SEC settlement expense recorded to operating expense related to the settlement with the SEC. Restricted cash in escrow for the SEC settlement increased $12.8 million related to the $ 12.8 million   SEC settlement amount deposited in escrow during the fourth quarter of 2015.

Net cash provided by operating activities was $27.6 million for the year ended December 31, 2014 and primarily reflected the net income for the period, adjusted for non-cash items such as stock-based compensation expense, provisions for expiring inventory, depreciation and amortization expense, and changes in operating assets and liabilities. As of December 31, 2014, we had accounts

48

 


 

receivable totaling approximately $0.9 million from a single customer, which were substantially delinquent and which we were actively trying to collect, and for which we had recorded a reserve of $0.9 million. We entered into a settlement agreement with the customer in October 2014 to collect the remaining balance (refer to Note 1 to the consolidated financial statements appearing under Part II, Item 8). Accounts receivable increased $3.3 million mainly related to an increase in ZADAXIN sales. Inventory decreased $5.9 million mainly related to ZADAXIN inventory sales during the first half of 2014 exceeding our purchase levels, excluding approximately $2.9 million in Pfizer and Aggrastat inventory not yet paid for as of December 31, 2014. Accounts payable and accrued liabilities decreased $5.9 million mainly related to sales and marketing and manufacturing expense payments made during the year ended December 31, 2014.

Net cash provided by operating activities was $9.5 million for the year ended December 31, 2013 and primarily reflected the net income for the period, adjusted for non-cash items such as stock-based compensation expense, depreciation and amortization expense, non-cash escrow share settlement, loss on maturity of available-for-sale investments, provision for losses on accounts receivable, and changes in operating assets and liabilities. Ac counts receivable increased $4.0 million related to an increase in our ZADAXIN sales during the fourth quarter of 2013, compared to the same quarter of 2012 when there was excess invent ory of ZADAXIN in the channel. Inventory increased $4.7 million due to the completion our new manufacturing process and process ing of new batches.

Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities was ($9.0) million ,   ($6.2) million, and $0.1 million for t he years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013 , respectively. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, purchases of property and e quipment were $1.8 million ,   $1.5 million, and $0.3 million, respectively. In addition, for the year s ended December 31, 2015 and 2013, we received proceeds of $0.1 million and $0.4 million from the sale or maturity of our short-term investments or available-for-sale securities, net of purchases. In addition, as part of our license and supply agreement with Zensun, we agreed to loan up to $12 million in total to Zensun under two separate loan agreements. Pursuant to these agreements, we loaned $7.25 million in the first half of 2015, and $4.75 million to Zensun during the second half of 2014 (such lendings are further described in Note 6 to the consolidated financial statements appearing under Part II, Item 8), which is reflected in the $ 9.0 million and $6.2 million of net cash used in investing activities for 2015 and 2014 , respectively . The proceeds of the loans are to be used for working capital and general corporate purposes by Zensun. To secure the loans, Zensun pledged its entire equity interest in its subsidiary, Shanghai Dongxin Biochemical Technology Co. Ltd. (whose assets include real property) to SciClone Pharmaceuticals International China Holding Ltd (“ SPIL China ”) .

Net cash used in financing activities was $8.4 million ,   $ 20.8 million, and $8.4 million for the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, respectively. During the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, we used $ 12.8 million, $ 24.4 million, and $12.5 million, respectively, to repurchase and retire approximately 1.5 million, 3.8 million, and 2.4 million shares of our common stock under our stock repurchase program. For the years ended December 31, 2015, 2014, and 2013, we also received $ 4.4 million, $ 5.2 million, and $1.7 million of proceeds, respectively, from the issuances of common stock made under our stock award plans. For the year ended December 31, 2013, our subsidiary borrowed $0.6 million and repaid $2.0 million under its loan agreement with Shanghai Pudong Development Bank Co. Ltd that expired August 29, 2013. All amounts borrowed were repaid by the expiration date. R estricted cash of $2.3 million was released during the year ended December 31, 2013, that had been used to secure a letter of credit related to a loan agreement .

In December 2013, our subsidiary, NovaMed Shanghai, entered into a 10.0 million RMB revolving line of credit facility (approximately $1.6 million USD) and a maximum 15.0 million RMB loan facility (approximately $2.4 million USD) secured by its accounts receivable with Shanghai Pudong Development Bank Co. Ltd. (the “Credit Facility”). In June 2014, NovaMed Shanghai repaid the 10.0 million RMB (approximately $1.6 million USD) under the Credit Facility. The Credit Facility expired on November 30, 2014 and all amounts borrowed were repaid by the expiration date.

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The following summarizes our other future contractual obligations as of December 31, 20 15  ( in thousands ):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Payments Due by Period

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Less than

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

More Than

Contractual Obligations

 

 

Total

 

 

1 Year

 

 

1-3 Years

 

 

3-5 Years

 

 

5 Years

Operating leases (1)

 

$

5,200 

 

$

2,421 

 

$

2,013 

 

$

766 

 

$

            —

Purchase obligations (2)

 

 

11,844 

 

 

11,844 

 

 

            —

 

 

            —

 

 

            —

Uncertain tax positions (3)

 

 

3,462 

 

 

            —

 

 

            —

 

 

            —

 

 

            —

Total

 

$

20,506 

 

$

14,265 

 

$

2,013 

 

$

766 

 

$

            —

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1)

These are future minimum rental commitments for office space and copiers leased under non-cancelable operating lease arrangements.

(2)

These consist of purchase obligations with manufacturers and distributors.

(3)

As we are not able to reasonably estimate the timing of the payments or the amount by which our obligations for unrecognized tax benefits will increase or decrease over time, the related balances have not been reflected in the ”Payments Due by Period” section of the table.

Under our $80.5 million stock repurchase program, we repurchased and retired 1,526,306 shares at a cost of $12.8 million during the year ended December 31, 2015 bringing the total repurchases since the program’s inception to approximately 13.2 million shares at a cost of $78.1 million through December 31, 2015. Our stock repurchase program expired Decem ber 31, 2015 and is currently under strategic review by the Board.

We recorded a charge of $2.0 million in the fourth quarter of 2013 related to the possibility of a settlement with the SEC and DOJ regarding their investigation into possible violations of the FCPA by us. Based on our discussions with the SEC, we recorded an additional $10.8 million in SEC settlement to operating expense for the year ended December 31, 2015, bringing the total loss to the government in penalties, fines and/or other remedies to $12.8 million. In February 2016, we entered into a settlement agreement with the SEC fully resolving the SEC’s investigation into possible violations of the FCPA. Under the terms of the agreement, in February 2016 , we paid $12. 8 million including disgorgement, pre-judgement interest and a penalty from our restricted escrow account that we funded in the fourth quarter of 2015. As part of the agreement, we neither admitted nor denied engagement in any wrongdoing and we agreed to give status reports to the SEC for the next three years on our continued remediation and implementation of anti-corruption compliance measures. The DOJ has also completed its related investigation and has declined to pursue any action. Refer to Part I, Item 3 “Legal Proceedings” and Part II, Item 8, Notes 18 and 22 for further information on this matter.

Under our license agreements with third parties we have agreed to various milestone payments related to regulatory and commercial success and other achievements that may require substantial payments in the future.

We believe that our existing cash and cash equivalents and ongoing revenue generating business operations will be sufficient to support our current operating plan for at least the next 12 months. We have no current commitments to offer and sell any securities that may be offered or sold pursuant to a registration statement. To the extent that we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience dilution. Debt financing, if available, may subject us to restrictive covenants and significant interest costs. To the extent that we raise additional funds through collaboration and licensing arrangements, we would be required to relinquish some rights to our technologies, product candidates or marketing territories. Additional financing or collaboration and licensing arrangements may not be available when needed either at all or on favorable terms.

We intend to continue to explore alternatives for financing to provide additional flexibility in managing our operations, in-licensing new products, particularly for China, and potential acquisitions, as may be required. In addition, as previously disclosed, our Board is evaluating a range of strategic transactions with a view to enhancing stockholder value.   The unavailability or the inopportune timing of any financing could prevent or delay our long-term product development and commercialization programs, either of which could hurt our business. We cannot assure you that funds from financings, if any, will be sufficient to in-license additional products. The need, timing and amount of any such financing would depend upon numerous factors, including the status of the pending regulatory investigations and pending litigations, the level and price of our products, the timing and amount of manufacturing costs related to our products, the availability of complementary products, technologies and businesses, the initiation and continuation of preclinical and clinical trials and testing, the timing of regulatory approvals, developments in relationships with existing or future

50

 


 

collaborative parties, the status of competitive products, and various alternatives for financing. We have not determined the timing or structure of any transaction.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We do not have any off-sh eet balance sheet arrangements.

Critical Accounting Policies and Significant Judgments and Estimates

General

We have identified the policies below as critical to our business operations and the understanding of our results of operations. The impact and any associated risks related to these policies on our business operations are discussed throughout “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” where such policies affect our reported and expected financial results. For a detailed discussion on the application of these and other accounting policies, see Note 1 in the “Notes to our Consolidated Financial Statements” in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United S t ates, which require us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amount of assets and liabilities, disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of our financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. On an on-going basis, we evaluate the relevance of our estimates and judgments. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other market-specific assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. There can be no assurance that actual results will not differ from those estimates.

Revenue Recognition

We recognize revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, services have been rendered or delivery has occurred, the price to the buyer is fixed or determinable and collectability is reasonably assured.

Product Revenue .   We recognize product revenue from selling manufactured ZADAXIN product at the time of delivery. Sales